The Carotid Sinus Baroreceptor Has A Crucial Role In The Control Of Blood Pressure And Heart Rate
The glossopharyngeal nerve / Carotid baroreceptors connection:
- In the medical publication STAT PEARLS housed at the National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine an explanation of function for the glossopharyngeal nerve / Carotid baroreceptors connection is given.
- Carotid sinus baroreceptor has a crucial role in the control of blood pressure and heart rate. Afferent signals travel from carotid baroreceptors to the cardiovascular control center in the midbrain via the glossopharyngeal nerve. The efferent signals transmit via parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves to the heart and blood vessels. This response brings appropriate changes to maintain heart rate and blood pressure in normal physiological limits, which is known as carotid sinus baroreflex
The Vagus Nerve / Aortic Baroreceptors
- Returning to the medical publication STAT PEARLS lets get an explanation of the function of the Vagus Nerve / Aortic Baroreceptors connection. Lets focus on some of the key points:
- Misinterpretation of the existence of hypertension
- Increased pressure on the carotid artery
- Fainting or syncope
To briefly review:
What Are We Seeing In This Image
This is a chart that reveals autonomic testing results in a patient we saw in our office.
When hooked up and being monitored we can see that:
- When the person had a stressful memory, just one stressful memory, the sympathetic system went way up . This person with one stressful memory became super sympathetic dominant and then eventually when we got the person to laugh the sympathetic system and the parasympathetic system became balanced again.
A heart rate variability test can give us a picture to show us how the person is doing as a relates to thoughts, memory, relationships. We can also test based on neck motions.
The motion of the neck and heart rate variability
In the above image, we can see that the second most stressful event for this person, besides the stressful memory, was a certain neck motion. In certain people, when they move their neck to a certain position, they can feel their overall body becoming more stressful and this is a real physiologic event that happens to them and the way that we document is with HRV testing.
The testing put patients in different stressor situations. This could include the stress of having to perform mathematical equations and the response to loud noise.
Surgical Treatments For Cervical Instability May Chase The Wrong Problem
In medicine, there are universally accepted equations. When pain cannot be controlled using conservative treatments including physical therapy, chiropractic, and pain medications, there has to be a surgical recommendation.
In neck and spine surgery, doctors focus on degenerative disc disease and its treatment, anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, and cervical decompression surgery to remove whole or part of the cervical vertebrae to allow space on compressed nerves and to fix the instability by fusing vertebral segments together. In the case of C1-C2 instability, these two vertebrae are fused posteriorly to limit their amount of movement. The goal is to limit pressure on the nerves. To be clear again, for some people surgery is the only way. For many others, surgery can be realistically avoided.
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What Are We Seeing In This Image This Is A Good Summary Of The Vagus Nerve And The Glossopharyngeal Nerve Monitoring The Blood Pressure And Pulse In The Body
For help with explaining what is happening in this above image, we are going to refer to a 2019 paper in the Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology written by Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann of the Dysautonomia Center, New York University School of Medicine. I am adding some explanatory notes to help the general reader.
The glossopharyngeal and vagus cranial nerves provide the brainstem with sensory inputs from different receptors in the heart, lung, and vasculature. This afferent information is critical for the short-term regulation of arterial blood pressure and the buffering of emotional and physical stressors.
Glossopharyngeal afferents supply the medulla with continuous mechanoreceptive signals from baroreceptors at the carotid sinus.
Vagal afferents ascending from the heart supply mechanoreceptive signals from baroreceptors in different reflexogenic areas including the aortic arch, atria, ventricles, and pulmonary arteries. , the atria
Ultimately, afferent information from each of these distinct pressure/volume baroreceptors is all relayed to the nucleus tractus solitarius, integrated within the medulla, and used to rapidly adjust sympathetic and parasympathetic activity back to the periphery.
Lesions that selectively destroy the afferent fibers of the vagus and/or glossopharyngeal nerves can interrupt the transmission of baroreceptor signaling leading to extreme blood pressure fluctuations.
Now lets look at this next segment:
What Can I Do To Prevent Palpitations
Depending on the cause of your palpitations, these tips can help you have them less often:
- Reduce your stress level or biofeedback techniques.
- Avoid or limit the amount of alcohol you drink.
- Avoid or limit the amount of caffeine in your diet.
- Do not smoke or use tobacco/nicotine products.
- Exercise on a regular basis .
- Avoid foods and activities that trigger palpitations.
- Control your blood pressure and cholesterol levels.
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What Causes Low Blood Pressure
There are many factors which can contribute to low blood pressure. In some people, they only have one factor such as fear. In others, there is a combination which add together to cause problems, such as prolonged standing, heat, alcohol and hyperventilation may also contribute.
It occurs more often in older people who are taking a lot of medication. However, it can cause symptoms in younger people. There may be underlying medical conditions such as joint hypermobility syndrome, diabetes, parkinsons disease, addisons disease or autonomic failure. Dehydration, hunger, low body weight and deconditioning can reduce blood pressure.
A Sudden Recommendation For Anti
We had a friend who was being recommended to start taking anti-anxiety medication. She wanted another opinion on this. That this friend was being recommended to anti-anxiety medication was somewhat surprising as we knew this person to be one of the calmest, most wonderful people we know. Great mother, great wife, nothing would suggest that she had anxiety. Not even to her.
Like the person above, she had new-onset anxiety, no reason, just happened one day while she was dropping off the kids at school. When I asked her about her neck prior to the onset of the panic attacks, she gave me a long history of tension in her neck, various types of headaches, chiropractic care, cracking sounds up high on the neck, swishing in the ear, and basically the rest of the signs and symptoms of upper cervical instability. I sent her to get a digital motion x-ray in her state which was significant for upper and mid cervical instability. We started treatments with Prolotherapy. .
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Spotting The Warning Signs Of Critically Low Blood Pressure
For many individuals, hypotension is no reason to worry desirable, even. But for others, abnormally low blood pressure can manifest in a variety of health issues. The majority of medical professionals will only consider chronically low blood pressure as dangerous if it causes noticeable signs and symptoms. For this reason, it is crucial that individuals familiarize themselves with the warning signs of low blood pressure all ranging in their severity so that it may be treated properly and in a timely manner. Such symptoms may include dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting, blurred or fading vision, fatigue, nausea, lack of concentration, etc. In patients with more dire cases, low blood pressure can be life-threatening. Patients bodies may go into shock as a result of extreme hypotension, causing a weak or rapid pulse rapid, shallow breathing cold, clammy, pale skin and confusion, especially in older individuals. People who encounter signs of shock are advised to immediately seek emergency medical help. Although most instances of low blood pressure merely necessitate routine examination to monitor readings, its important to see your doctor if you have signs or symptoms of low blood pressure because they can point to more serious problems.
What Else Can Cause An Elevated Heart Rhythm Along With Low Blood Pressure
When the hearts electrical circuits arent properly functioning,the result can be a high heart rate coupled with low blood pressure, Dr. Taigenexplains.
When the heart has a fast, abnormal rhythm anything over 100, but closer to 160 beats per minute it cant adequately fill with blood. The chaotic electrical signaling causes the heart muscles to be out of sync between the top and bottom chambers, he says. Less efficiency in the heart means less blood is pumping through the body which means low blood pressure.
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If The C1 Vertebra Is Unstable And Causes Problems Of Nerve Pinching This Is How Upper Cervical Instability Can Affect The Heart Rate Variability
There is a difference between Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability.
- Heart Rate measures the number of heartbeats per minute.
- Heart Rate Variability measures the time between individual heartbeats. Please see our article on Heart Rate Variability.
To understand what may be happening in these people we need to understand the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system operates automatically. That is why it is called the autonomic nervous system. By itself, without conscious instruction, the autonomic nervous system keeps your heart pumping, your blood flowing through your blood vessels, your lungs breathing, and a myriad of other activities that occur in your body all the time, every day of your life. Part of that myriad of duties includes the operation of the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system.
So here we have the autonomic nervous system and its components, the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system, that among its duties regulate your heart rate. Its main highway of communication is the vagus nerve of which there are two running down each side of the neck. The vagus nerve has a great impact on heart function, as the cardiovascular afferents make up the greatest extent of the 85-90% of sensory fibers which make up the vagus nerve.
How To Remedy Or Prevent Keto
Keto-related heart palpitations are usually short-term and only experienced during your transition to the ketogenic high-fat diet. This is when your electrolytes are most likely to become out of balance. That means that as you regulate and settle into ketosis, these symptoms should resolve. However, part of regulating is getting your electrolytes in balance, and there are very easy ways to do that:
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What To Do If Foods Cause You Heart Palpitations
First off, take note if you feel any additional symptoms, because those could signal that youre experiencing more than simple palpitations. Seek emergency medical help if at any point you also have:
- Shortness of breath
- Pain or discomfort in the upper back, arms, neck, or jaw
- Feeling of impending doom
If its the first time youve ever noticed heart palpitations, make a follow-up appointment with your doctor. Its likely nothing is wrong, but its always best to err on the side of caution and make sure that the food-related episode isnt the first sign of a bigger issue.
Next, start a log and record times when the palpitations recur. Note what you ate or drank and what sort of emotional state you were in. If specific foods or beverages tend to cause recurrences, take that as a sign you should reduce or eliminate those foods from your diet. Your body and your heart couldnt be telling you any more clearly that those substances are doing you harm.
What Is Low Blood Pressure
Blood pressure recordings consist of two numbers. The top one is the systolic blood pressure and relates to the contraction of the left side of the heart and the peak pressure achieved when it pumps blood round the body. The bottom number is the diastolic recording and is the lowest pressure achieved in the circulation this relates to the relaxation of the heart. Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury , e.g. 120/70 mmHg.Low blood pressure is also known as hypotension. This is usually defined in an adult as a systolic recording of less than 90 mmHg, although it has been suggested that for elderly people, below 110 mmHg is a more appropriate definition. Blood pressure and heart rate are controlled by the autonomic nervous system .
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Sometimes Comfort And Reassurance Are The Best Medicine
While palpitations can sometimes signal a more serious condition, theyre often just a sensation of a normal heartbeat, says Marine. Confirming that nothing is seriously wrong is sometimes all a person needs. Relaxation techniques and reassurance from a physician I find that both are very helpful when the cause of palpitations is benign.
Johns Hopkins Women’s Cardiovascular Health Center
The Johns Hopkins Womens Cardiovascular Health Center provides education, comprehensive treatment and diagnostic services to prevent and manage heart disease in women.
How Are Heart Palpitations Diagnosed
Keep track of your heart palpitations. Note the following:
- When they happen.
You may need to wear a monitor after you go home so your doctor can get more information about your heart and symptoms.
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Other Symptoms Caused By Leukaemia
Anaemia is responsible for a diverse range of symptoms, many of which are also commonly associated with leukaemia. For this reason, it is extremely rare for heart palpitations to occur as a symptom on their own. One reason for the relative rarity of palpitations presenting as a symptom is that they only occur in very severe anaemia symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath and loss of concentration are likely to proceed this symptom as they develop sooner when anaemia is not as serious.
Weakness and Fatigue Cells in the body use the oxygen to fuel the combustion of sugar and fat, which produces the bodys energy. Without oxygen, the body cannot function properly, and this leads to the feelings of extreme tiredness, known as cancer-related fatigue.
Breathlessness Your body will automatically try and compensate for the lack of oxygen by breathing more heavily to replenish oxygen levels from the air.
Pale skin When oxygen binds to haemoglobin on the red blood cells, it forms a bright red substance known as oxyhaemoglobin, causing the blood to become bright red. Skin that is paler than a persons usual complexion may occur due to the reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin in the vessels supplying the skin.
Keeping an eye out for these other symptoms of anaemia and connecting the dots between them may be crucial in spotting leukaemia early. Since anaemia is usually diagnosed using a full blood count, leukaemia can also be picked up at this stage.
Medications For Afferent Baroreflex Dysfunction Hypertension/hypotension Why They Do Not Work For Many
Afferent Baroreflex Dysfunction can be caused by many problems. It can be caused by tumor development in the neck, it can be caused by radiation therapy in oncology. It can be caused by neck surgery, it can be caused, Familial dysautonomia it can be caused by any compression on the nerves, arteries, and veins that pass through the neck, such as compression or injury on the carotid sinus nerve, a branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve. In this scenario, high blood pressure may be caused by simply turning your head one way or the other and creating compression or pressure on the glossopharyngeal nerve.
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Hypertension Anxiety Dizziness Blurry Vision Neck Pain Heart Palpitations Irregular Heartbeats Medications Are Not Helping
It is likely that if you are reading this article you may have been prescribed medications for your hypertension and hypotension blood pressure swings and that you and your cardiologist are finding it challenging to get that correct mix of medicines to help you. A paper in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology, December 2019 describes how challenging it is for cardiologists to manage this problem.
Afferent baroreflex failure is most often due to damage of the carotid sinus nerve because of neck surgery or radiation. . The clinical picture is characterized by extreme blood pressure lability with severe hypertensive crises, hypotensive episodes, and orthostatic hypotension, making it the most difficult form of hypertension to manage. There is little evidence-based data to guide treatment. Recommendations rely on understanding the underlying pathophysiology, relevant clinical pharmacology, and anecdotal experience. The goal of treatment should be improving quality of life rather than normalization of blood pressure, which is rarely achievable.
Heart Palpitations And Headache After Eating
You may experience heart palpitations and a headache after eating for a few reasons.
Both symptoms can be triggered by certain foods, though they may not always be the same foods. Its possible that a meal may contain foods that trigger both symptoms.
A rich meal and spicy food can bring on heart palpitations after eating.
You may get a headache from any number of foods. About 20 percent of people who get headaches say that food is a trigger. Common culprits include dairy or excessive amounts of salt.
Alcohol or caffeine consumption can also lead to both heart palpitations and a headache.
The treatment for your symptoms may vary based on the cause of your heart palpitations and headache.
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In This Video Ross Hauser Md Highlights Some Of The Most Common Reasons Why Cervical Instability Or Cervical Dysstructure Can Be The Underlying Structural Cause Of Low Vagal Tone And Associated Poor Heart Function Leading To Pots Or Dysautonomia
- POTS symptoms may range from mild and occasional complaints to severely incapacitating disease. Sufferers are commonly misdiagnosed as having chronic anxiety or panic disorder or chronic fatigue syndrome.
- There is a multitude of other symptoms that often accompany this syndrome including pre-syncope, syncope, dizziness, palpitations, headache, fatigue, bladder, and gastrointestinal symptoms.