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How To Diagnose High Blood Pressure

Having A Blood Pressure Test

How to Diagnose High Blood Pressure

A stethoscope, arm cuff, pump and dial was normally used to measure your blood pressure, but automatic devices with sensors and digital displays are commonly used nowadays.

It’s best to sit down with your back supported and legs uncrossed for at least 5 minutes before the test.

You’ll usually need to roll up your sleeves or remove any long-sleeved clothing so the cuff can be placed around your upper arm.

Try to relax and avoid talking while the test is carried out.

During the test:

  • you hold out one of your arms so it’s at the same level as your heart, and the cuff is placed around it your arm should be supported in this position with a cushion or the arm of a chair, for example
  • the cuff is pumped up to restrict the blood flow in your arm this squeezing may feel a bit uncomfortable, but only lasts a few seconds
  • the pressure in the cuff is slowly released and detectors sense vibrations in your arteries a doctor will use a stethoscope to detect these if your blood pressure is measured manually
  • the pressure in the cuff is recorded at 2 points as the blood flow starts to return to your arm these measurements are used to give your blood pressure reading

You can usually find out your result straight away, either from the healthcare professional carrying out the test or on the digital display.

Can High Blood Pressure Affect Pregnancy

High blood pressure complicates about 10% of all pregnancies. There are several different types of high blood pressure during pregnancy and they range from mild to serious. The forms of high blood pressure during pregnancy include:

Chronic hypertension: High blood pressure which is present before pregnancy.

Gestational hypertension: High blood pressure in the latter part of pregnancy.

Preeclampsia: This is a dangerous condition that typically develops in the latter half of pregnancy and results in hypertension, protein in the urine and generalized swelling in the pregnant person. It can affect other organs in the body and cause seizures .

Chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia: Pregnant people who have chronic hypertension are at increased risk for developing preeclampsia.

Your provider will check your blood pressure regularly during prenatal appointments, but if you have concerns about your blood pressure, be sure to talk with your provider.

Lowering Blood Pressure Too Much

People can tolerate many different levels of blood pressure without symptoms. But blood pressure can certainly be too low in a number of situations .

Such patients discover how to get up slowly to give the body a chance to adjust. If the pressure is too low, the patient becomes dizzy upon standing because too much blood pools in the legs. In these cases, some kind of treatment is needed to raise the blood pressure.

Besides the drugs that treat high blood pressure, medications that may cause too-low blood pressure include

  • Alcohol

Many medical conditions can also cause too-low blood pressure. Among them are:

  • Changes in heart rhythm
  • Heart failure
  • Severe allergic reactions

Some peoples blood pressure actually lowers too much during sleep. The insufficient blood flow may increase the risk for heart attacks and brain attacks, and the fall may be even worse when a person takes blood-pressure- lowering drugs.

At the present time, doctors have few solutions for this problem the only treatment is to keep the amount of drugs at a level that doesnt worsen the condition.

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Taking Your Blood Pressure At Home

Often patients who register a high reading in the doctors office register a normal reading at home. While normal home measurements dont mean that you can avoid treatment if your blood pressure is high in the doctors office, a number of advantages exist to measuring your own blood pressure at home:

  • You can identify whether you have white coat high blood pressure.
  • Frequent measurements of your blood pressure can tell you whether your treatment is working, and they can overcome the problem of blood pressure variability.
  • You adhere to the treatment because you get rapid feedback.
  • You know whether the diet, exercise, or pills are working, and youre able to alter the treatment long before your next office visit by getting in touch with your doctor by phone or e-mail.
  • You may reduce the cost of care because you dont have to see your doctor as often if your blood pressure remains stable and low. Because the home pressure tends to be lower, a normal pressure at home is less than 135/85 mm Hg . But it is still better to have a blood pressure of less than 120/80 at home.

Numerous devices are on the market for monitoring blood pressure at home. Some use the arm and some the wrist as the site of the measurement. We dont recommend using a mercury blood pressure gauge at home. Other types of blood pressure gauges are just as accurate and avoid the risk of mercury contamination.

Different Measurement Strategies For Detecting Hypertension


There are three different measurement strategies to detect hypertension:

  • Ambulatory BP-monitoring
  • Home BP monitoring
  • Office-based measurements

Although screening for hypertension is often performed at the doctors office, many individuals with high BP measurements at the office will not have hypertension upon further testing . This is commonly due to white coat hypertension.

ABPM monitoring is the preferred method for detecting hypertension. If ABPM is not feasible, home BP monitoring may be used.

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Treating High Blood Pressure

Treatment for high blood pressure will depend on your blood pressure levels and your associated risk of developing a cardiovascular disease, such as a heart attack or stroke.

There are seven main risk factors for developing a cardiovascular disease. These are:

  • age
  • smoking
  • obesity
  • having a high level of cholesterol in your blood
  • having a family history of cardiovascular disease .

Types Of High Blood Pressure Disorders During And After Pregnancy

If you have high blood pressure before pregnancy, it will need to continue to be managed during and after pregnancy.

Some women who have a healthy blood pressure develop high blood pressure during or after pregnancy.

  • Gestational hypertension is blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 that develops during pregnancy. Its typically diagnosed after 20 weeks of pregnancy or close to delivery.
  • Preeclampsia and eclampsia. Preeclampsia is a combination of high blood pressure during pregnancy and signs that your organs are not working well, such as high protein levels in your urine. This can lead to life-threatening seizures or coma, a condition known as eclampsia. Women who have had preeclampsia have a higher risk of developing high blood pressure and heart disease later in life.
  • HELLP syndromeis a more severe type of preeclampsia or eclampsia.
  • High blood pressure disorders after the baby is born. Some women may continue to have high blood pressure problems, including preeclampsia, eclampsia, or HELLP syndrome, after the birth of their child, or their high blood pressure may get worse.
  • A sudden spike in blood pressure can also happen during pregnancy or after the baby is born. This is a medical emergency.

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Favorite Online Support Networks

This online support group from the American Heart Association allows you to connect with others going through an array of heart issues, including hypertension. Ask questions, share your story, and get peer support from others going through similar experiences to take control of their heart health.

Number Of Pregnant Women With High Blood Pressure Rises More Than Thirteenfold Since 1970 Study Finds

Medical School – Diagnosing Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

If not treated, high blood pressure during pregnancy can lead to a number of complications for both the mother and the baby. Hypertension can affect a mother’s kidneys and increase her risk of future heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke.

It can also increase the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, preeclampsia, placental abruption, cesarean delivery, and HELLP syndrome .

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Focusing On Blood Pressure Gauge Fundamentals

The instrument that measures your blood pressure is a sphygmomanometer . However, I think blood pressure gauge is clearer and easier to pronounce. I hope you dont mind if I call it that from now on.

The blood pressure gauge consists of a cuff that goes around your arm above the elbow. The bladder is the part of the cuff that fills with air. A tube connects the cuff to a column of mercury at one end and a rubber bulb at the other. When the rubber bulb is squeezed, the air pressure in this closed system forces the column of mercury to rise as the bladder fills with air. Numbers along the column of mercury indicate how much pressure is present. The mercury blood pressure gauge is the gold standard for blood pressure measurement. Very little can cause this device to malfunction because the column of mercury is the only moving part. Note: The mercury blood pressure gauge is becoming less common because mercury is toxic and has the potential to contaminate the environment.

An alternative blood pressure gauge thats rising in popularity is the aneroid blood pressure gauge a spring-gauge model that uses air pressure to move a needle on a scale. Each degree the needle moves represents one millimeter of mercury. This gauge is inexpensive and easier to transport than the mercury blood pressure gauge.

Both models require a certain degree of upkeep.

Why Is High Blood Pressure A Problem

High blood pressure is a risk factor for developing serious health problems sometime in the future. If you have high blood pressure, over the years it may do some damage to your blood vessels and put a strain on your heart. In general, the higher your blood pressure, the greater the health risk.

Cardiovascular disease is the biggest risk from having high blood pressure. Cardiovascular diseases are diseases of the heart or blood vessels . This usually means diseases of the heart or blood vessels that are caused by atheroma. Patches of atheroma are like small fatty lumps that develop within the inside lining of blood vessels . Atheroma is also known as atherosclerosis and hardening of the arteries.

Cardiovascular diseases that can be caused by atheroma include:

  • Drink a lot of alcohol.
  • Have a lot of stress.

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What Do The Diastolic And Systolic Numbers Mean

How is blood pressure measured?

Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff and recorded as two numbers, for example, 120/80 mm Hg . Blood pressure measurements are usually taken at the upper arm over the brachial artery.

  • The top, the larger number is called the systolic pressure. This measures the pressure generated when the heart contracts . It reflects the pressure of the blood against arterial walls.
  • At the bottom, the smaller number is called the diastolic pressure. This reflects the pressure in the arteries while the heart is filling and resting between heartbeats.

Symptoms Of Kidney Disease Caused By High Blood Pressure

How many days of checks needed to diagnose high blood ...

What symptoms or signs are seen with renal hypertension? · High blood pressure that is not controlled on three or more medications at their.

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Over time, high blood pressure harms renal blood vessels.

The nephrons in the kidneys are supplied with a dense network of blood vessels, and.

Causes of CKD · high blood pressure over time, this can put strain on the small blood vessels in the kidneys and stop the kidneys working properly · diabetes .

15 Symptoms of Kidney Disease. 1. Fatigue being tired all of the time. Why this happens: Healthy kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin , or EPO, that tells your body to make oxygen-carrying red blood cells. As the kidneys fail, they make less EPO. With fewer red blood cells to carry oxygen, your muscles and.

Pre-eclampsia risk can be determined by analysing genetic material in pregnant womens blood, say a global team of scientists including experts at Kings College London.

Think of going straight back to work after an operation? You may be causing yourself more pain in the long run! Keep your recovery on track and avoid these costly post-surgery care mistakes.Self-care.

Knowing the symptoms of kidney disease can help people detect it early enough to.

or high blood pressure, which are the main causes of kidney failure.

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How Common Is High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is a common condition, it is estimated that 18% of adult men and 13% of adult women have high blood pressure but are not getting treatment for it.

In 90-95% of cases, there is no single identifiable reason for a rise in blood pressure. But all available evidence shows that lifestyle plays a significant role in regulating your blood pressure.

Risk factors for high blood pressure include:

  • age
  • poor diet
  • being overweight
  • excessive alcohol consumption.

Also, for reasons not fully understood, people of Afro-Caribbean and South Asian origin are more likely to develop high blood pressure than other ethnic groups.

Ambulatory Blood Pressure Readings

These are readings taken at regular intervals whilst you go about your normal activities. A small machine that is attached to your arm takes and records the readings, usually over a 24-hour period.

As a rule, an average of the ambulatory blood pressure readings gives the truest account of your usual blood pressure. Home blood pressure readings are a good substitute if an ambulatory machine is not available. Ambulatory and home readings are often a bit lower than clinic or GP surgery readings. Sometimes they are a lot lower. This is because people are often much more relaxed and less stressed at home than in a formal clinic or surgery situation.

See the separate leaflet called Home and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Recording.

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What Is Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. Each time your heart beats, it pumps blood into the arteries. Your blood pressure is highest when your heart beats, pumping the blood. This is called systolic pressure. When your heart is at rest, between beats, your blood pressure falls. This is called diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure reading uses these two numbers. Usually the systolic number comes before or above the diastolic number. For example, 120/80 means a systolic of 120 and a diastolic of 80.

Research For Your Health

Diagnosing Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

The NHLBI is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health the Nations biomedical research agency that makes important scientific discovery to improve health and save lives. We are committed to advancing science and translating discoveries into clinical practice to promote the prevention and treatment of heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders, including high blood pressure. Learn about the current and future NHLBI efforts to improve health through research and scientific discovery.

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How To Prevent High Blood Pressure

A heart-healthy lifestyle can help prevent high blood pressure from developing. To live a healthy lifestyle:

Watch this video to learn more about why high blood pressure is such a problem.

This video shows how high blood pressure damages the walls of your arteries over time and leads to life-threatening health problems.

High blood pressure in pregnancy can raise the risk of later heart and blood vessel problems for both the mother and her child.

How Is Blood Pressure Measured

Blood pressure is defined as the amount of pressure that is exerted on the artery walls as blood moves through them. It is measured in millimetres of mercury, or mmHg.

A more detailed explanation is provided below.

Two measurements are used to measure blood pressure:

  • Systolic pressure – the measure of blood pressure exerted when your heart beats and forces blood around your body.
  • Diastolic pressure – the measure of blood pressure when your heart is resting in between beats.

Both the systolic and diastolic pressures are measured in millimetres of mercury .

The figures are usually represented with the systolic pressure first, followed by the diastolic pressure. Therefore, if your GP says that your blood pressure is ‘120 over 80’, or 120/80mmHg, they mean that you have a systolic pressure of 120mmHg and a diastolic pressure of 80mmHg.

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Whats The Best Way To Diagnose Hbp

The best way to diagnose high blood pressure is to have your blood pressure measured.

How a blood pressure test works

  • A blood pressure reading is taken with a pressure cuff .
  • During the test, the cuff is placed around the upper arm before being manually or electronically inflated.
  • Once inflated, the cuff compresses the brachial artery, momentarily stopping blood flow.
  • Next, air in the cuff is slowly released while the person performing the measurement listens with a stethoscope or monitors an electronic readout.

Watch an interactive animation of a manual blood pressure test, including the sounds that a medical professional hears as the blood moves through the brachial artery in your arm.

Your blood pressure reading is recorded as two numbers:

  • Systolic blood pressure indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls during heartbeats.
  • Diastolic blood pressure indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls while the heart is resting between beats.


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