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What Are The Risk Factors Of Hypertension

How Can I Prevent High Blood Pressure

Hypertension Risk Factors: NCLEX Style Question

You can help prevent high blood pressure by having a healthy lifestyle. This means

If you already have high blood pressure, it is important to prevent it from getting worse or causing complications. You should get regular medical care and follow your prescribed treatment plan. Your plan will include healthy lifestyle habit recommendations and possibly medicines.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

What Are The Complications Of Uncontrolled Hypertension

  • Chest pain, also called angina.
  • Heart attack, which occurs when the blood supply to the heart is blocked and heart muscle cells die from lack of oxygen. The longer the blood flow is blocked, the greater the damage to the heart.
  • Heart failure, which occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to other vital body organs.
  • Irregular heart beat which can lead to a sudden death.

Data Collection And Measurements

Questionnaire-based, physical and clinical measurements for most participants were performed. Trained research personnel administered questionnaires and measured BP and anthropometric parameters. The instruments and measurements used for this study were in accordance with the recommendations from the WHO STEPwise approach to risk factor surveillance . The questionnaire was translated into Telugu, the native language, and then back translated into English to check for any errors that might lead to misinterpretation of either the questions or the answers. This questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographics including age, sex, traditional social group, religion, marital status, educational attainment and type of work undertaken lifestyle-related behaviours, including tobacco use, alcohol consumption and physical activity and knowledge about hypertension and its risk factors, routine habits for health check-ups and access to healthcare.

Height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm using a standard portable stadiometer . Weight was measured, in light clothes, to the nearest 0.1 kg using a standard calibrated portable electronic scale . Waist and hip circumferences were measured using a constant-tension Gulick tape in privacy, behind a screen.

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You Can Control Many Factors That Increase The Risk Of High Blood Pressure

At Gym Slayer, we address the most prevalent risk factors, such as inactivity, obesity and a poor diet. In fact, its one reason many people come to us in the first place. An inactive lifestyle affects your heart and circulatory system. It can lead to obesity or excess weight, which also strains the circulatory system and heart. When you add in an unhealthy diet, which includes high amounts of salt, sugar and trans fats, you have the trifecta of high blood pressure. We can help you eliminate those risk factors.

When You Get Fitter You Can Deal Better With Other Risk Factors

Hypertency: Hypertension Modifiable Risk Factors

If you smoke or drink too much alcohol, you can increase your risk of heart disease and high blood pressure significantly. While eliminating those two factors isnt easy, a healthy diet and regular exercise can make it easier. Some factors, like diabetes, can be helped with a healthy diet and regular exercise. High cholesterol levels are also linked to inactivity and a poor diet. Stress, another factor, can be relieved with exercise. It burns off the hormones of stress and gets you back to a healthier state.

  • Secondary hypertensionhypertension caused by something else, such as pregnancy, kidney disease and some heart defectswill resolve itself normally when the underlying condition is addressed.
  • If you have chronic kidney disease, its important to keep a watchful eye over your blood pressure. Its a vicious circle. Kidney disease can cause high blood pressure and high blood pressure can make kidney disease worse.
  • Besides exercise, learning meditation and breathing techniques can help you lower your blood pressure and bring relief from stress.
  • While you cant control your genetics, many of the risk factors for high blood pressure can be controlled and at Gym Slayer, well be glad to help you do that.

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Genetics And Family History

When members of a family pass traits from one generation to another through genes, that process is called heredity.

Genes likely play some role in high blood pressure, heart disease, and other related conditions. However, it is also likely that people with a family history of high blood pressure share common environments and other potential factors that increase their risk.

The risk for high blood pressure can increase even more when heredity combines with unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and eating an unhealthy diet.

Find out more about genetics and disease on CDCs Office of Public Health Genomics website.

Family health history is a record of the diseases and health conditions people in your family have had. Family health history is a useful tool for understanding health risks and preventing disease. To help people collect and organize information on their family history, CDCs Office of Public Health Genomics collaborated with the Surgeon General and other federal agencies to develop a Web-based tool called My Family Health Portrait.

Study Variables And Data Collection Procedure

Study procedure: data for this study was collected using a questionnaire adapted from the WHO STEP wise approach to chronic Disease Risk Factors Surveillance- Instrument v2.1 which was administered to participants to permit study objectives to be met. The questionnaire collected data on socio-demographic information, knowledge and practices about hypertension, lifestyle, blood pressure measurements and anthropometric data . It was pretested in another rural community . The questionnaire was administered to study participants by a researcher and anthropometric parameters were measured by the same researcher. The researcher was trained on how to take anthropometric measurements and how to recalibrate measuring instruments after use.

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Definition And Ascertainment Of Prevalent And Incident Hypertension

Prevalent cases are defined as participants with systolic BP140mmHg and/or diastolic BP90mmHg as determined by the mean of the second and third measurements, self-reported prevalent hypertension diagnosis, or use of antihypertensive medication. Self-administered questionnaires were used every 2 to 3 years to collect information about potential cases of incident hypertension and hypertension-specific medicines during the previous months. Incident cases were included in the analysis only after verification and the confirmation of the diagnosis by the treating physician .

Is High Blood Pressure Genetic

Hypertension Risk Factors (Health Tip)

“I would say the simplest answer to this is, yes, there is a genetic component,” says Joshua Shatzkes, MD, a cardiologist at Mt. Sinai Hospital.

If your parents have hypertension, you are at an increased risk for high blood pressure.

A 2018 study involving over a million people identified 500 genes that influence blood pressure. Some of these genes influence the cells lining blood vessels, causing them to be abnormally constricted and raise blood pressure.

Other genes can cause high cholesterol, especially in a condition known as hypercholesterolemia, which can also increase blood pressure.

In addition, genetic factors often combine with other adverse lifestyle choices, which can further increase the risk of hypertension.

For example, when you’re growing up, if your family eats an unhealthy diet high in sodium, creates a high stress environment, smokes too many cigarettes, and doesn’t exercise often, then you’re more likely to inherit those behaviors and more likely to develop hypertension.

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Who Is At Risk For High Blood Pressure

Anyone can develop high blood pressure, but there are certain factors that can increase your risk:

  • Age – Blood pressure tends to rise with age
  • Race/Ethnicity – High blood pressure is more common in African American adults
  • Weight – People who are overweight or have obesity are more likely to develop high blood pressure
  • Sex – Before age 55, men are more likely than women to develop high blood pressure. After age 55, women are more likely than men to develop it.
  • Lifestyle – Certain lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, such as eating too much sodium or not enough potassium, lack of exercise, drinking too much alcohol, and smoking.
  • Family history – A family history of high blood pressure raises the risk of developing high blood pressure

Behavioural Risk Factors Hypertension Knowledge And Hypertension In Rural India

Eslavath Rajkumar

1Central University of Karnataka, Kalaburagi, India


1. Introduction

The World Health Organization states that a significant percentage of noncommunicable diseases are preventable by addressing four main behavioural risk factors: physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. Ard and Svetkey reported that lifestyles such as physical activity and nutrition, play a vital role in preventing its long-term problems and controlling the hypertension. In order to improve their life condition, patients should have awareness about hypertension, the potential health risks associated with it and benefits of engaging in lifestyle modification . Patients with hypertension need to have necessary skills and knowledge to take care of themselves, to define their condition, to understand and estimate potential risk factors and to appreciate how far lifelong medical control can help . Low level of knowledge and awareness about blood pressure are also important factors for not adhering to antihypertensive drugs, which can lead to higher rates of uncontrolled blood pressure . Patients who have good knowledge about their condition are more motivated to engage in blood pressure monitoring, which further resulted in medication adherence and blood pressure control .

2. Method

2.1. Research Design
2.2. Study Area and Sample

3. Measures

3.1. Behavioural Risk Factor Index
3.2. Hypertension Knowledge
3.3. Hypertension
3.4. Demographics

4. Results

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Inflammation And The Immune System

Inflammation makes an important contribution to the genesis of hypertension and related target organ damage. Inflammation is associated with increased vascular permeability and release of potent mediators, such as reactive oxygen species, NO, cytokines and metalloproteinases. Cytokines mediate the formation of neo-intima , thereby decreasing the lumen diameter of resistance vessels , and promoting vascular fibrosis, leading to increased vascular resistance and stiffness. Cytokines also affect renal tubular function by increasing local synthesis of angiotensinogen and angiotensin II, as well as promoting sodium and volume retention in hypertension. Matrix metalloproteinases stimulate the degradation of the extracellular matrix, allowing infiltration of immune cells through the vessel wall into the interstitium of the affected organs, promoting apoptosis and enhancing collagen synthesis and matrix deposition, leading to target organ damage.

Study Design And Sample Size

Hypertension: Causes and Risk Factors

A community based cross-sectional study was carried out among the people aged 25 to 64 years living in the selected study area. The sample size for the present study was calculated by taking most probable prevalence of hypertension as 50% and permissible error as 5% with 95% confidence interval. Fixing the permissible error as 50%, the minimum sample size was calculated as n = 384. Since sampling procedure was multistage, hence considering the design effect, the sample size was further increased by one and half times. Considering the nonresponse rate of 10% the final sample size in study was fixed as 640. In the present study, a prior written informed consent was also taken from the participants. Prior written informed consent was taken by the participants.

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Definition And Categorisation Of Mlfs

Six acknowledged MLFs were selected: general adiposity, abdominal adiposity, physical activity, adherence to Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Body Mass Index and waist circumference accounted for general and abdominal adiposity, respectively. BMI was categorised as underweight/normal , overweight and obese . Waist circumference was measured in cm and sex-specifically categorised as no risk , medium risk , and high risk . Smoking behaviour was categorised as never smoking, former and current smoking. The Improved Physical Activity Index adjusted for sex and age was used to account for physical activity it was calculated as described in previous papers and divided into inactive, moderately active, and active/very active categories. Dietary intake data assessed by FFQ were used to calculate a DASH Diet Score, that was modified due to lack of information about sodium intake. The modified DASH Score was divided into tertiles indicating adherence to the DASH diet. Alcohol intake from beverages was categorized as follows: no/light consumption , moderate , high , and very high consumption . Based on previous knowledge, the following variables were used as adjusting variables in the risk models: educational attainment, age, and use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Educational attainment was categorised into high, medium, and low.

Risk Factors For Hypertension Among Young Adults Years Attending In Tenwek Mission Hospital Bomet County Kenya In 2018

Damaris Ogake Ondimu, Gideon Mutie Kikuvi, Walter None Otieno

Corresponding author: Damaris Ogake Ondimu, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

Received: 12 Feb 2019 – Accepted: 05 Jul 2019 – 16 Jul 2019

Domain: Chronic disease prevention

Keywords: Risk factors, hypertension, young adults, cases

©Damaris Ogake Ondimu et al. Pan African Medical Journal . This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution International 4.0 License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Cite this article: Damaris Ogake Ondimu et al. Risk factors for hypertension among young adults years attending in Tenwek Mission Hospital, Bomet County, Kenya in 2018. Pan African Medical Journal. 2019 33:210.

Available online at:

Original article

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Exclusion And Inclusion Criteria

The entire study population included 27,548 participants aged 4065 and 3565 . Participants with prevalent primary or secondary hypertension , with no follow-up time , or with missing values in any of the variables used were excluded . Participants with prevalent chronic diseases , previous cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disorders , or morbid obesity were also excluded, to avoid bias due to comorbidities. After exclusion, 11,923 participants were eligible for analysis. Of these, 1,635 developed hypertension during a mean follow-up time of 10.3 years.

Figure 1

Too Much Sodium In Your Diet

Hypertension: The risk factors for premature death

Sodium is a chemical found in salt, plays a role in increasing blood pressure by promoting the retention of fluid by the body. This increases the pressure on the heart to work more. Some studies recommend an upper daily limit for sodium consumption of 1500 mg. Checking the sodium amount on food labels and menus can help you keep a track of how much sodium you are consuming. Launch meats and canned soups have particularly high levels of dietary sodium. Processed foods are high in sodium and makeup about 75% of our sodium intake.

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Some Factors Cant Be Changed

You cant change your genetics and thats one factor in developing hypertension. If youre parents or other family members had it, youre more likely to have elevated blood pressure, too. The older you get, the more likely youll develop it. Men under 65 are more likely to develop high blood pressure than women under 65, but once they hit that age, there is no difference. Race makes a difference, too.

Managing/reversing High Blood Pressure

Recent evidence looked at changes in blood pressure in the 143 people who completed the Counterweight-Plus programme as part of the DiRECT clinical trial. At the start of the Counterweight-Plus programme blood pressure medications were stopped, and only restarted if blood pressure rose. The weight loss resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure, and for some no further need for blood pressure medications when weight loss is sustained.

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Sample Size Determination And Sampling Method

Sample size was determined based on the Taro Yamanes approach .

n = N / 1+N 2

Where, n = the expected sample size, N = finite population out of which the sample size is drawn and e = level of precision. The target population for this study is 600 and precision of 5%

n = 600 /1+6002 = 243 participants

A multi-stage sampling was used to randomly select 243 study participants. In the first step, 5 households were randomly selected from each of the 5 quarters that constituted the village of Ombe. Within each household, two adults meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were randomly selected. Where there were just two, they were all included and where there was just one another household was randomly selected from another was sampled.

Risk Factors Of Hypertension

Risk Factors of Hypertension

Hypertension is a common health concern that is characterised by an increase in blood pressure for a longer duration that causes critical damage to the blood vessels.

People diagnosed with hypertension can breed other life-threatening conditions like heart failure, stores, impair kidneys, lack of oxygen, and many more complications. These complications can severely impair their quality of life.

Hence, it is crucial to shift to healthy choices like regular exercise, a healthy high blood pressure diet, and retraining from addictive substances.

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When Preexisting Medical Conditions Cause High Blood Pressure

A small number of high blood pressure cases are secondary hypertension high blood pressure thats caused by another medical condition that was present first. Examples include pregnancy-induced hypertension , certain heart defects, and kidney disorders. Most often, if the condition causing the high blood pressure can be resolved, the individuals blood pressure will normalize as well. For a majority of the discussion on this page and throughout this site, we are referring to primary hypertension, high blood pressure that has no identifiable cause. A majority of people with high blood pressure have a form of primary hypertension.

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Assessment Of Knowledge Of Risk Factors And Consequences Of Hypertension

Participants responded yes, no or I do not know to indicate whether they thought the following factors help reduce BP: reducing alcohol consumption loss of weight for those who are overweight or obese increasing intake of fresh fruits and vegetables increasing physical activity and reducing salt intake. Knowledge scores were calculated for each participant based on the number of options selected. Participants received 1 point for each yes response option about knowledge of the five modifiable risk factors. Knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 5.

Additional questions were asked to examine knowledge of the consequences of hypertension, for example, effects of hypertension on ones health, and to ascertain whether participants were aware that treating hypertension reduces the likelihood of other diseases.

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