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How Does Hypertension Cause Atherosclerosis

So Here Are The Answers To These Three Unanswered Questions From Current Medical Savants:

How High Blood Glucose Causes Atherosclerosis

1) The arteries become damaged from an increase in dietary, environmental, respiratory and/or metabolic acids due to the bodys inability to buffer and then eliminate these acids through the four channels of elimination urination, defecation, perspiration and respiration.2) Plaque is the bodys alkaline defensive system to protect the blood and lymphatic vessels, tissues and organs from dietary, environmental, respiratory and/or metabolic acids. Plaque can build up in the blood vessels causing restrictions leading to hypertension and congestion or blockages leading to heart attack or stroke.3) Plaque is crystallized acid and can break just like glass causing injury to the arterial lining or cover cells leading to clotting. When the basement membrane of the blood vessel wall is exposed from acidic damage this activates the complex clotting factor VII leading to the production of fibrinogen and fibrin monomers to repair acidic damage and prevent internal bleeding.

Followingare The Common Choices Of Medications:

Cholesterol Medication

The drugs help to lowering down the level of LDLmeans bad cholesterol thus inhibit the fatty deposits in arteries and boostingthe HDL good cholesterol.

There is a range of cholesterol medication statinsand fibrate. Statins in addition to lowering down cholesterol, stabilise thelining of heart arteries.

Antiplatelet

Drug including Aspirin is prescribed as it reducedplatelet clumpy formation in arteries which may create a blood clot and furtherdamage.

Beta Blocker

The drugs are mainly prescribed for Coronary arteryDisease and give relief from chest pain by decreasing BP and heart rate.

ACE inhibitors

Drugs slow down the progression of atherosclerosisby lowering BP and give other beneficial effects as well.

Diuretics

Diuretics lowering down the BP by increasingurination.

Ca Channel Blockers

Lowering down BP and mainly used to treat angina.

Surgery

Surgery might get necessary if the symptoms aresevere and the person in danger.

Mechanisms Of Endothelial Dysfunction And Cvd

The constellation of hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypoxia/ischemia, insulin resistance or diabetes, smoking, and obesity has been well characterized as the metabolic syndrome, or Syndrome X. These CVD risk factors all contribute to oxidative stress, which in turn impairs endothelial vasomotor function. With endothelial dysfunction, the balance of vasoactive substances is disrupted. Secretion of nitric oxide, which promotes vasodilation in response to hemodynamic stress, is decreased, whereas levels of the angiotensin converting enzyme and the potent vasoconstrictor hormone ET-1 are increased .

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Signs Andsymptoms Of Atherosclerosis

Usually, atherosclerosis wont have symptoms untilthe artery is so narrowed or blocked that it cannot efficient blood supply.

Symptoms of atherosclerosis depend on whicharteries get affected such as:

If atherosclerosis in heart arteries then you mighthave symptoms of chest pain or High BP

If atherosclerosis is in leg or arm arteries thenyou might have symptoms of leg pain and also it can be called as peripheralartery disease.

If atherosclerosis in brain arteries than you may experience slurred speech, temporary vision loss in one eye, dropping muscles in your face. This is a transient ischemic attack and if untreated then it puts you in the more dangerous situation that is a stroke.

How Do You Know If Your Heart Is Healthy

Category: Discussion Topic

You can get a good idea of the health of your heart with some simple tests and checks:

  • get an NHS Health Check you should have one every five years if youre aged between 40 and 74
  • visit your GP or practice nurse.

There are a number of ways your doctor can find out if you could have any of these health problems or could be developing them, including questions about your medical history, family history and your lifestyle, as well as blood tests.

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What Are The Complications Of Atherosclerosis

Plaque buildup inside the arteries reduces the blood flow. A heart attack may occur if the blood supply is reduced to the heart. A damaged heart muscle may not pump as well and can lead to heart failure. A stroke may occur if the blood supply is cut off to the brain. Severe pain and tissue death may occur if the blood supply is reduced to the arms and legs.

Emotional Issues And Support

Having an atherosclerosis-related disease may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel with your doctor. Talking to a professional counselor also can help. If you’re very depressed, your doctor may recommend medicines or other treatments that can improve your quality of life.

Community resources are available to help you learn more about atherosclerosis. Contact your local public health departments, hospitals, and local chapters of national health organizations to learn more about available resources in your area.

Talk about your lifestyle changes with your family and friendswhoever can provide support or needs to understand why you’re changing your habits.

Family and friends may be able to help you make lifestyle changes. For example, they can help you plan healthier meals. Because atherosclerosis tends to run in families, your lifestyle changes may help many of your family members too.

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Followingare The Causes For Hardening Of The Arteries

HighCholesterol

This is the yellow, waxy substance found naturallyin the body and also in the food we eat. When there is an increased level ofcholesterol in the blood, it makes the plaque which forms inside the arteriesand resists the blood flow.

Diet

Avoid consuming a high amount of sugar, salt, fat,sugar-sweetened beverages and should follow the healthy diet pattern includingas below:

Include Fibre-rich fruits and vegetables

Increase the amount of Whole grains consumed

Include lean Fish and poultry products

Increasse Nuts and legumes

Prefer Low-fat Dairy Products.

Ageing

As you age, your blood vessels need to work harderfor blood supply which loses its elasticity and make it more susceptible toplaque build-up.

But there are also some other factors which cannotbe prevented.

Family History

If atherosclerosis runs in your family then you may be at higher risk.

Lack of Exercise

In addition to a healthy diet, exercise is alsomuch needed for the heart to be healthy lifelong. Sedentary lifestyle put youat risk for various cardiac diseases.

Smoking

This is the potential cause of plaque formation as it accelerates the formation of the fatty deposits.

Diabetes

Diabetic people have much higher incidence of coronary artery disease.

Infection As A Risk Factor For Heart Disease

Atherosclerosis

A number of pieces of evidence suggest a link between chronic infection and risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Herpesviruses promote atherosclerosis in experimental animals, and they have been found in atherosclerotic plaques in humans. Chlamydia pneumoniae have been found in atheromatous plaques, and increased antibodies to these agents are associated with increased risk of new infarction in patients who have had myocardial infarction. Periodontal disease is also associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease and peripheral vascular disease, even after adjusting for known confounding factors. Mouth organisms, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus sanguis have been found in plaques. Injection of Cytomegalovirus, Chlamydia, or P. gingivalis into animal models does not cause atherosclerosis, but it does accelerate its progression. It is also noteworthy that C-reactive protein, which is produced by the liver in response to inflammation, is a non-specific marker of chronic inflammation, and it is considered to be an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic disease.

For an excellent review see Mattila KJ, et al.: Role of Infection as a Risk Factor for Atherosclerosis, Myocardial Infarction, and Stroke. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1998 26:719-734.

Tonetti MS, et al.: Periodontal Disease Treatment of Periodontitis and Endothelial Function. N Engl J Med 2007 356:911-20.

From the abstract:

Results

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Can I Lower My Risk Of Heart Disease And Heart Attacks

Healthy lifestyleYour lifestyle plays a major role in high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and heart disease, and making will lower your risk. Stopping smoking is particularly important, as well as cutting down on alcohol, losing weight if you need to, being active and eating a which is low in salt and saturated fat.

Treatment for other health problemsYou might be offered statins if your blood cholesterol is raised. If you have any other medical conditions that can affect the heart and blood vessels, such as diabetes, its important to keep these under control, which might involve medications.

What else raises the risk of heart disease

There are a number of risk factors which can mean youre more likely to develop atherosclerosis and heart disease. These are:

  • age atherosclerosis and diseases of the heart become more common with age
  • being male heart disease is more common in men than women
  • family history of cardiovascular disease including heart attacks and stroke
  • other health problems including and , as these can damage the blood vessels.

While these cant be changed, making changes to your lifestyle and getting other health problems under control will make a big difference.

Read more

The British Heart Foundation has information on different heart conditions, the treatments available, living with a heart condition and heart-healthy recipes.

An important new study has shown that DOACs are better at preventing stroke, safer, and more cost effective than Warfarin.

Who Is Atrisk Of Atherosclerosis

Plaque is dangerous. As it grows for years withoutsymptoms, suddenly get ruptured, forming a blood clot which blocks the arteryand preventing oxygen supply to heart and brain results in heart attack andstroke respectively.

Plaque build-up in arteries restrict the blood flowand preventing organs and tissues getting oxygenated blood and do their workefficiently the way they should.

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Endothelial Function And Cvd

A follow-up study in 157 subjects with mild coronary artery disease demonstrated the relationship between endothelial dysfunction and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Subjects were assessed for endothelial function by their response to graded intracoronary administration of the endothelium-dependent vasodilator acetylcholine, with bolus intracoronary injections of adenosine and nitroglycerin. Changes in artery diameter, early atherosclerosis, and coronary blood flow were observed with intracoronary angiography and ultrasound. Based on these measurements, subjects were divided into three groups: those with normal endothelial function those with proximal coronary endothelial dysfunction and those with microvascular endothelial dysfunction . After an average follow-up of 28 months, none of the subjects in Groups 1 and 2 experienced any cardiac events, whereas among Group 3 subjects, six had a total of 10 cardiac events . This study demonstrated for the first time that endothelial dysfunction in patients with mild CAD significantly increases the risk for cardiac events.

Red Meat: Choline Carnitine Gut Bacteria And Trimethylamine

What is atherosclerosis? Causes, symptoms and treatments

Red meat has been suspected of being a risk factors for heart disease for a number of years, and recent studies have provided evidence for such an association. Bernstein et al. prospectively followed 84,136 women aged 30 to 55 years in the Nurses’ Health Study. All women were initially free of known cardiovascular disease for about 26 years. Diet was assessed periodically using a standardized questionnaire. The authors reported that higher intakes of red meat, red meat excluding processed meat, and high-fat dairy were significantly associated with elevated risk of CHD, while higher intakes of poultry, fish, and nuts were significantly associated with lower risk.

A subsequent study from Boston University School of Public Health :941-6.) reached a similar conclusion in a cohort of male physicians. Men in the highest quintile for red meat consumption had a 24% increase in risk of heart failure compared to men in the lowest quintile of consumption (risk ratio: 1.24 95% confidence limits, 1.03-1.48.

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Effects Of Angiotensin Ii Receptor Blocker Therapy On Small Artery Remodeling

Because Ang II appears to be a key effector of epithelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling, it is hypothesized that ARB therapy could correct small artery abnormalities. A study was conducted to compare the effects of the ARB losartan with those of the -blocker atenolol on the structure and function of small arteries. In this study, subjects with mild essential hypertension were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with losartan or atenolol for 1 year. The structure and endothelial function of resistance arteries dissected from gluteal subcutaneous biopsy specimens was examined at baseline and after treatment. The increased M/L ratio of resistance arteries of hypertensive patients was partially corrected with treatment with losartan but not with atenolol, even though BP lowering was similar with both agents. Similarly, maximal acetylcholine vasodilation was significantly improved in the small arteries of the losartan-treated subjects compared with baseline values, but not in subjects who were given atenolol. Angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment, therefore, corrected small artery remodeling and endothelial dysfunction independent of BP reduction.

High Blood Pressure High Cholesterol And Atherosclerosis

High blood pressure does not create more cholesterol in the blood but it can cause more cholesterol that is already present in the bloodstream to form plaque along artery walls. How does this happen?

When blood is forced too strongly through the circulatory system, which is the case with high blood pressure, it can cause damage to artery walls. The vascular walls, which when healthy are strong and flexible, are stretched, weakened, and injured. When tiny tears occur, scar tissue forms. This tissue on the walls of arteries and veins catches the material that moves through the bloodstream, including cholesterol, causing plaque formation.

As cholesterol and other debris from the blood build-up along artery walls the problems only become worse. More build-up leads to less room for blood to circulate through. Limited space increases blood pressure because the heart now has to work even harder to pump blood through the body. This can then lead to more damage, more build-up, all the while making the heart work harder.

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Effects Of Angiotensin Ii Receptor Blockers On Atherogenesis

The role of Ang II in atherogenesis has been further clarified by studies testing the effects of Ang II receptor blockade on the formation of atherosclerotic plaque and other markers of vascular injury. The effects of AT1 blockade in cynomolgus monkeys were investigated to determine whether Ang II contributes to atherogenesis by promoting the inflammatory and proliferative response to hypercholesterolemia. Monkeys in the study were fed an atherogenic diet high in cholesterol and received the Ang II receptor blocker losartan via osmotic minipump infusion. The extent of fatty streak formation in the aortas of the animals treated with losartan was markedly less than in the aortas of the vehicle-treated monkeys . The fatty streak deposits of the losartan-treated monkeys also showed reduced macrophage-derived foam cells, with no disruption of the internal elastic lamina, compared with the vehicle-treated monkeys.

What Specialists Might I Need To See For Arteriosclerosis

Stroke, clogged arteries and atherosclerosis

If you have atherosclerosis, your healthcare provider may recommend you see a specialist, such as:

  • Cardiologist, who specializes in the heart.
  • Nephrologist, who specializes in the kidneys.
  • Neurologist, who specializes in the nervous system .
  • Vascular specialist, who specializes in the blood vessels.

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Whos Most At Risk For Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, Coronary Artery Disease, Carotid Arterial Disease, Peripheral Artery Disease and Hypertension are all caused by the genetic expression of body cells to protect against excess dietary, environmental, respiratory and/or metabolic acidity. To change the genetic expression of the body cells one must restore the alkaline design of the body fluids with an alkaline lifestyle and diet, I call the pH Miracle LIFEstyle. To have Atherosclerosis you must do Atherosclerosis with an excessive acidic lifestyle and diet. High cholesterol is a response to high acidity. High triglycerides is a response to high acidity. High blood plasma C-reactive protein is a risk factor to high acidity and high inflammation/pain.

Hypotheses And Statistical Analyses

Analysis was initially performed gender- and ethnicity-specific. Significant differences in the relationships were found for men and women, but not according to ethnic group. To maximize statistical power, ethnic groups were combined, and further analyses were done separately for men and women. Because hypertensive treatment is associated with variable effects on arterial stiffness, models were calculated separately for participants reporting antihypertensive medication use . Analyses were performed using the Statistical Applications Software Version 6.11.

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The Damage Can Build Over Time

The excess strain and resulting damage from high blood pressure causes the coronary arteries serving the heart to slowly become narrowed from a buildup of fat, cholesterol and other substances that together are called plaque. This slow process is known as atherosclerosis.

As arteries harden with plaque, blood clots become more likely to form. When an artery becomes blocked due to an accumulation of plaque or a blood clot, the flow of blood through the heart muscle is interrupted, starving the muscle of oxygen and nutrients. The damage or death of part of the heart muscle that occurs as a result is called a heart attack .

Watch what happens during a heart attack.

Signs And Symptomsatherosclerosis Is Often Accompanied By The Following Signs And Symptoms:

Researchers learn how
  • Atherosclerosis is caused when dietary, environmental and/or metabolic acids are retained in the blood and NOT properly eliminated through the four channels of elimination . The retention of excess acid in the blood is chelated with cholesterol, blood calcium or sodium bicarbonate solidifying the acid and forming a plaque which builds up on the insides of the arteries. This build up of solidified acid causes restrictions in blood flow leading to hypertension. When the artery is completely solidified with acid this causes a heart attack or stroke and then death. Keep in mind that atherosclerosis, coronary blockages, hypertension, heart attack and stroke are NOT the disease. The disease is an acidic lifestyle and diet that increases excess blood acidity leading to acid retention, solidification of acid and then the symptoms medical science calls Atherosclerosis disease.

  • Acids build up in the blood and on the arterial wall that causes atherosclerosis can affect any artery, vein or lymphatic vessel in the body. These acidic build ups can be seen through a non-radioactive Ultra Sound examination of the major blood vessels and organs of the body.

Other acidic conditions that are caused by an acidic lifestyle and diet such as late onset of puberty, intestinal obstruction, inflammation of the pancreas, cirrhosis , and infertility may also be signs of an acidic lifestyle and diet and atherosclerosis.

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