Low Sodium Intake And Cardiovascular Risk
Over the years, the evidence of a close relationship between high sodium intake and hypertension, and high sodium intake and increased cardiovascular risk and mortality, has become increasingly consolidated. For this reason, we are used to consider that the lower the sodium intake is, the better the patient prognosis is. However, the studies that are beginning to shake the foundations of this historic fortress are growing in number. Actually, in the analysis of this topic, several cohort studies and meta-analyses have shown that the relationship between sodium intake and poor patient prognosis have not a linear trend, but rather describe a J-shape curve. In these studies, an increased risk not only in high sodium intake, but also in significantly low sodium intake levels is underlined. To reach this declaration, large patient populations have been studied, including various types of healthy patients or those with different co-morbidities , with wide numbers in all subgroups.
Select Foods With Less Hidden Salt
While reducing the salt you add at the table and when cooking or preparing meals, you should also focus on selecting foods that contain less hidden salt because this accounts for around 75% of all salt in most peoples diet.
- Choose reduced salt bread and breakfast cereals bread is a major source of sodium in the diet.
- Buy fresh vegetables or select lower sodium canned varieties.
- Read food labels.
- Choose products with low salt or salt-free versions of commonly used foods .
- Choose unprocessed fresh wholefoods.
- Reduce packaged and processed snack purchases.
Regulation Of Endothelial Function
Endothelial cells also express 2 Na+ pumps, NCX1, and some TRPC proteins . Arterial constriction activates an endothelial cell Ca2+ signaling cascade that enhances endothelial NO synthase activity and NO production this limits vasoconstriction because NO is a vasodilator . In addition, endothelial cell activation releases another vasodilator, endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor . These vasodilator mechanisms, which are also activated by agonists such as acetylcholine and bradykinin , may be mediated by TRPC4-containing channels . The ability of acute low-dose ouabain to stimulate endothelial Ca2+ signaling and endothelium-dependent vasodilation has been documented in a number of studies . This may occur through both the NO-dependent and NO-independent mechanisms. Acute exposure of cultured aortic endothelial cells or hand-dissected descending vasa recta endothelia to nanomolar ouabain increases bradykinin-induced cytosolic Ca2+ transients and enhances the release of NO .
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What Are Salt Substitutes
Most salt substitutes are made of potassium chloride, which tastes much like sodium chloride. In fact, for many people theyre similar enough in flavor that they find it easy to switch.
But if the taste of the potassium chloride doesnt work for you, there are so-called lite salt replacements. Theyre often labeled low sodium and contain a blend of sodium chloride and potassium chloride. These salt substitutes have a more salty taste, yet have less sodium chloride than traditional table salt. Bear in mind, however, that these lite salt replacements do contain a degree of sodium chloride and you need to go easy.
Facts About Sodium Consumption And Sodium In Our Food Supply
- The 20202025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that Americans consume less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium each day as part of a healthy eating pattern.6
- About 90% of Americans 2 years old or older consume too much sodium.7
- The average daily sodium intake for Americans 2 years old or older is more than 3,400 mg.8
- Americans are consuming substantially more sodium than in the 1970s. Since 2010, some manufacturers have reduced sodium in some foods, and the amount of sodium consumed has decreased slightly in some groups of people.7,9
- About 70% of sodium consumed is from processed and restaurant foods. Only a small portion of sodium or salt is used in cooking or added at the table.10
- Because sodium is already in processed and restaurant foods when they are purchased, reducing personal sodium intake can be hard, even for motivated people.11
- Sodium content can vary across the same types of foods by brand. For example, a slice of frozen cheese pizza can have between 370 mg and 730 mg of sodium a cheeseburger from a fast food restaurant can have between 710 mg and 1,690 mg.12
- Sodium information currently is not always readily available for restaurant or prepared foods and can be hard for the consumer to estimate.
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Eating Salt When You Have High Blood Pressure
Salt is essential to our bodies. Normally your kidneys control your level of salt. If you consume too much salt, the kidneys pass it into the urine. But when our salt intake levels are very high, the kidneys might not be able to keep up, and the salt can remain in the body.
Salt attracts water to balance the concentration in the blood. When there is too much salt in the blood, the salt draws more water into the blood. More water increases the volume of blood, which raises blood pressure.
Blood pressure refers to the amount of pressure on the walls of your arteries. Think of a garden hose. When the water is off, there is no pressure on the walls of the hose. When the water is on halfway, there is some pressure on the walls of the hose. When the water is on full the way, there is more pressure on the walls of the hose.
Myth : You Can Tell That A Food Is Salty By Tasting It
Some foods with a high salt content wont taste very salty at all. Many packaged foods that contain a lot of salt have other ingredients that balance out the salty flavour, so that the salt is effectively hidden in the food.
You can visit the Heart Foundation and VicHealths website Unpack The Salt to find out more about reducing hidden salts in your diet.
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Adrenal Eo Secretion And Circulating Eo
The adrenals contain large amounts of EO , and the plasma EO level is greatly reduced by the removal of the adrenal cortex . Moreover, humans with adrenocortical insufficiency have very low EO levels that do not respond to ACTH . Conversely, plasma EO levels are elevated in mineralocorticoid hypertension . These data all indicate that most of the circulating EO is derived from the adrenals, although a hypothalamic source, which likely mediates the local effects in the brain, has also been suggested .
Both in vivo data and data from primary cultured bovine adrenocortical cells reveal that EO secretion is stimulated by ACTH, ANG II, and catecholamines . De novo EO biosynthesis by primary cultured adrenal glomerulosa cells is well documented i.e., adrenal stimulation increases the EO concentration in the medium without affecting the content in the adrenocortical cells . Furthermore, femoral artery and adrenal vein catheterization studies demonstrate that EO is secreted by the adrenals in awake dogs the secretory rate is unaffected by acute plasma volume expansion. Interestingly, secreted EO appears to suppress its own secretion i.e., there is feedback inhibition . Removal of this inhibition by binding up secreted EO might explain why the chronic administration of anti-ouabain antibodies causes the adrenal cortex to hypertrophy .
Effects Of Ouabain/eo On The Peripheral Sympathetic Nervous System
In addition to its effects on the brain, the kidneys, and the vasculature, it is not surprising that ouabain/EO also apparently affects peripheral sympathetic neurons. Indeed, the augmentation of myogenic constriction of isolated small arteries by nanomolar ouabain is due, in part, to an ouabain-evoked increase in spontaneous neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerve terminals. This component is blocked by the -adrenergic antagonist, prazosin . Furthermore, prolonged in vivo exposure to ouabain increases both short- and long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission in sympathetic ganglia thus postganglionic SNA should be augmented for any given level of presynaptic input. It is not yet known whether similar mechanisms contribute to the elevation of BP in salt-dependent models of hypertension, but reduced accommodation and augmented synaptic transmission has also been observed in sympathetic ganglia from SHRs .
In sum, both central and peripheral pressor mechanisms contribute to the elevation of BP in hypertensive humans and animals, and EO plays a key role in these processes. The relative contributions of the central and peripheral mechanisms, however, remain to be determined. These effects are synergistic, and BP cannot be elevated without a direct contribution from the arteries. Thus it will be important to develop new models and tools to distinguish the roles with certainty moreover, the relative roles may vary depending on the model being studied.
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Is It Salt Or Sodium
- Sodium chloride is the chemical name for salt.1
- Ninety percent of the sodium we consume is in the form of salt.1
- The words salt and sodium are not exactly the same, yet these words are often used interchangeably. For example, the Nutrition Facts Panel on foods in the grocery store uses sodium, while the front of the package may say no salt added or unsalted.5
The Truth About Salt & Hypertension
—– originally posted at CoachMikeBlogs.com —-
The initial recommendation to eat less salt stems from research by Lewis Dahl in the 1950s, who decided feeding rats 500 grams of sodium per day was viable evidence for showing an association between sodium intake and hypertension .
But if that wasnt misleading enough, he later followed up this research with several studies identifying correlations between populations with a high average salt intake and high blood pressure.
Which, similar to the Seven Country Study on fat intake , was full of scientific flaws. With a future analysis finding no association between the 2 variables. And sadly, just like low-fat, suggesting the opposite:
An increase in blood pressure with a reduction in salt intake!
Although before we get into that, the reason theres a lack of association in the first place, is because elevated blood pressure is a symptom not a cause. With salt reduction doing nothing for heart disease because the cause of hypertension is obesity, insulin resistance, and elevated triglycerides – not excess salt!
For instance, in a 1998 paper in the Journal of Applied Physiology, researchers showed that hypertension is the 4th and final step in the progression from Syndrome X to The Deadly Quartet
- At 2 weeks insulin resistance
- At 2 months elevated triglycerides
- At 6 months obesity
- At 12 months high blood pressure
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The Hypothalamus And Enhanced Sympathetic Drive
As already noted, a high-salt diet elevates plasma by a few millimolar, but the rise is not different in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant or hypertensive and normotensive subjects. A high-salt diet also elevates CSF in salt-sensitive Dahl S rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats but not in their salt-resistant or normotensive counterparts . The rise in CSF stimulates the hypothalamic circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ , and activates a central sympathoexcitatory pathway. This induces a rapid, short-term, ANG II-mediated increase in peripheral SNA and elevation of BP that is prevented by central ANG-II type-1 receptor blockade .
Fig. 3.Diagram of the proposed hypothalamic Na+-aldosterone-EO-angiotensin II neuromodulatory pathway by which elevated CSF increases central sympathoexcitatory pathways. AT1R, ANG II type-1 receptor ENaC, benzamil-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel MR, mineralocorticoid receptor OVLT, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis PVN, paraventricular nucleus SON, supraoptic nucleus SFO, subfornical organ. The PVN and SON are hypothalamic nuclei the OVLT and SFO are circumventricular organs that, together with the median preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, are located anteroventral to the third ventricle, in the so-called AV3V region. Revised from Leenen .
What Causes Low Blood Pressure
Many factors can lead to low blood pressure such as a nutrient-deficient diet, dehydration, heart problems, adrenal insufficiencies or neurological disorders. We always look at any preexisting health conditions or try to identify a possible cause to then treat that problem, says Dr. Patel.
For the most part, though, if your hypotension is asymptomatic and you are otherwise healthy, it is usually not recommended to treat it with medication, he adds.
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Myth : Some People Naturally Crave More Salt Than Others
Good news for those who think theyre naturally a salt eater the taste for salty foods is learned, rather than built in. Its possible to retrain your taste buds to like foods with less salt in them, itll just take a little time.
Try these tips from Eat for Health for eating less salt:
- eat mostly fresh food instead of processed food which tend to be high in added salt
- go for packaged and canned foods labelled no added salt, low salt or salt reduced
- compare similar packaged foods by looking at the food labels and choosing the item with less sodium
- swap deli meats like ham for canned fish or leftover meat from your last meal
- use small amounts of sauces with a high salt content
- flavour your cooking with a variety of herbs and spices
- avoid adding salt at the table you could even leave the salt grinder in the cupboard.
How Blood Pressure Changes
Your body controls the pressure in your arteries using a complex system of regulators including your heart, kidneys, enzymes, hormones, and nervous system.
Your blood pressure is always adjusting, based on your activity level, stress level, time of day, and even the position of your body. Lifestyle factors such as alcohol, caffeine, food, tobacco , and stress can all change your blood pressure.
There are several categories of high blood pressure:
- High blood pressure stage 1
- Hypertension stage 2
- Hypertensive crisis
If either of the numbers in your blood pressure measurement is higher than normal, you should work on reducing your blood pressure through lifestyle changes and should seek the care of a physician.
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Recommendations For Salt Reduction
- For adults: WHO recommends that adults consume less than 5 g of salt per day .
- For children: WHO recommends that the recommended maximum intake of salt for adults be adjusted downward for children aged two to 15 years based on their energy requirements relative to those of adults. This recommendation for children does not address the period of exclusive breastfeeding or the period of complementary feeding with continued breastfeeding .
- All salt that is consumed should be iodized or fortified with iodine, which is essential for healthy brain development in the fetus and young child and optimizing peoples mental function in general.
Does Salt Water Lower Your Blood Pressure
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Salt Doesn’t Cause High Blood Pressure New Study Claims
- Study of more than 8,000 French adults found no link between salt consumption and high blood pressure
- 30 per cent of people in England and the U.S. suffer hypertension – high blood pressure, the most prevalent chronic disease in the world
- Researchers found body mass index had the greatest impact on systolic blood pressure levels
10:03 EDT, 11 September 2014 | Updated:
A new study has found salt consumption is not linked to higher blood pressure
Doctors have long warned of the dangers of a high-salt diet.
But a new study has revealed sodium does not cause high blood pressure, and the link between the two is ‘more complex than once believed’.
Hypertension is the most prevalent chronic disease across the world.
Known as a ‘silent killer’ high blood pressure rarely has obvious symptoms.
Around 30 per cent of people in England have hypertension, but many are unaware.
Meanwhile in the U.S. 67 million adults suffer the condition.
Scientists analysed data from 8,670 French adults and concluded the assumption that salt causes higher blood pressure is ‘overstated’.
Their aim was to evaluate the impact of lifestyle and nutritional factors on blood pressure levels.
Despite finding no direct link, the authors of the study did note those patients who were hypertensive consumed much higher levels of salt than those without the condition.
Their findings suggest salt affects people in different ways.
Eating more fruit and vegetables, on the other hand, acted to reduce hypertension.
High Blood Pressure Shake The Salt Habit
- Health Matters
- High Blood Pressure? Shake the Salt Habit
Understand Your Numbers
- avoid alcohol and tobacco,
- choose a low-fat diet and maintain a healthy weight,
- exercise 30 minutes or more, five or six times a week,
- keep your salt intake under 4 grams a day.
Be Salt SavvyDont have a doctor? Click here for help finding one.
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