What Is The Normal Blood Pressure For Children
Monitoring BP is not necessarily for grown-ups only. Children can and may suffer from hypotension or hypertension, as well. Just like adults, there is also a cut off rate to child bp. It varies by age.
Starting from age 3, the American Heart Association recommends that every childs blood pressure be monitored. This is because as early as this age, underlying health problems may cause abnormal bp.
And if you are quick to spot changes in your sons or daughters BP then you might be able to stop problems before they even start.
Average BP for kids 3 to 6 years old:
The normal blood pressure in children ages 3 to 6 years old is 104/63 to 116/74 mm/hg. This will also vary depending on the size and gender of the child. If the child is somewhat tall or big, then you can expect a higher BP rate than that of smaller kids.
Selection Of Antihypertensive Drugs
First-line antihypertensive drugs in the elderly
Drugs that have been shown to be effective in placebo-controlled studies involving elderly patients with hypertension or drugs with systolic hypertension, and those that exhibited similar or more potent preventive effects on cardiovascular disease compared with those drugs in comparative controlled studies, have been selected as first-line drugs.
The effectiveness of thiazide diuretics , -blockers and Ca channel blockers has been confirmed in placebo-controlled studies . Of these, most -blockers are contraindicated for elderly patients, or caution is needed for their use they may not become a first-line drug for hypertension in the elderly. When administering diuretics, their influence on impaired glucose tolerance, hyperuricemia and dyslipidemia must be considered, and low-dose therapy should be performed to reduce these adverse effects. The STOP-Hypertension-2, NICS-EH and ALLHAT directly compared the effectiveness of a diuretic with that of a Ca channel blocker. There was no significant difference in the incidence of cardiovascular events between the two drugs in any study. In the NICS-EH Study, the tolerance to the Ca channel blocker, which was evaluated from the medical dropout rate, was better.
Compelling indication in the presence of complications
How To Take A Senior’s Blood Pressure Measurements
People can have HBP for years without knowing it. Along with checking other vital signs, taking a BP measurement with a blood pressure cuff and stethoscope or an electronic sensor is common practice at the beginning of most medical appointments.
If a patients readings are high, most doctors will recheck their blood pressure several times on different days before making a treatment determination. A diagnosis is given if repeated readings are elevated.
Measurements should be taken when a patient is relaxed and sitting upright with both feet flat on the floor. Caregivers can use these tips to help ensure their loved ones receive accurate readings:
- Do not let the senior drink coffee or smoke cigarettes 30 minutes before BP measurements are taken.
- Remind them to wear short sleeves.
- Encourage the senior to use the restroom beforehand.
- Allow them to sit and rest for 5 minutes before the test.
If you must check your loved ones blood pressure at home, it is important that you work with their doctor to choose an approved device and learn how to use it properly. BP monitors can be bought at durable medical equipment stores and pharmacies, but they typically are not covered by Medicare.
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Criteria For Hypertension In The Elderly And Epidemiological Findings
A positive correlation was observed between an increase in blood pressure and the logarithmically transformed cardiovascular mortality rate in the Hisayama Study and in the meta-analysis of approximately one million people with no history of cardiovascular disease in 61 prospective studies. This correlation was still observed in those in their 80s, and absolute cardiovascular risk increased with age, whereas the slope of correlation became gentler in old age. In NIPPON DATA80, which is a 19-year follow-up study in Japan, an increase in blood pressure was also positively correlated with an increase in the risk of cardiovascular death. On the other hand, there are epidemiological studies that report the presence of a blood pressure threshold related to increases in cardiovascular risk and mortality rate. However, the threshold may be influenced by the analytical method, number of subjects, observation period and outcome . On the basis of these results, basically, cardiovascular risk is lower at a lower blood pressure even in elderly people. The same criterion of hypertension as that for nonelderly persons was set for elderly people.
Normal Blood Pressure In Babies And Children
A “normal” blood pressure changes throughout childhood â it’s lowest in infants and gradually increases throughout childhood. For example, an average one year old would have a blood pressure of 85/37, and that same child at age 10 would have a blood pressure of 102/61, according to data from the National Institutes of Health.
A child usually has their blood pressure taken at their yearly check-up to document changes over time. Determining normal blood pressure in children is a bit complicated, and it depends on the child’s size and age. One rule of thumb doctors use is this: a child is considered to have “prehypertension” if she has a blood pressure greater than 90 percent of children of similar age and size, and to have “hypertension” if she has a blood pressure greater than 95 percent, per the guidance from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
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Diagnosis Considering Fluctuation Of Blood Pressure
The comprehensive diagnosis of the blood pressure level is shown in . In elderly patients with hypertension, blood pressure fluctuates widely, and measurement condition is easy to affect blood pressure. A study involving elderly patients indicated that cardiovascular risk was high in patients with masked hypertension . On the initial visit, blood pressure should be measured simultaneously by the palpation method to avoid overlooking auscultatory gaps and pseudohypertension . However, the incidence of pseudohypertension is low in Japan.
Blood Pressure Monitor Vs Blood Pressure Cuff
Blood pressure monitor and blood pressure cuff are two phrases often used to describe the same blood pressure measurement tool. The blood pressure cuff is the element that wraps around either the upper arm, wrist or finger to measure blood pressure. The blood pressure monitor is the element in charge of inflating and deflating the cuff, as well as providing your blood pressure reading on an easy-to-read display.
Most experts recommend using a blood pressure monitor with an upper arm blood pressure cuff for at-home readings because they tend to be more accurate than wrist cuffs and finger cuffs.
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What The New Blood Pressure Guidelines Mean For Caregivers
AgingCare.com only publishes articles that wont be published elsewhere on the web, so I cant post the whole thing here. But here are the highlights related to the December 2013 BP guidelines:
- A higher target BP for adults aged 60 or older. The recommended goal BP is now less than 150/90, instead of less than 140/90 .
- A higher target BP for people with diabetes and/or kidney disease. The recommended goal BP is now less than 140/90, instead of less than 130/80.
What does this mean for you, if youre caring for aging parents or other older persons? It means you should check on how their BP has been doing.
If its been much lower than the numbers above, you should consider discussing the BP medications with your parents doctor. This is especially important if youve had any concerns about falls or balance. For specific recommendations on how to make sure your older loved one isnt getting too much blood pressure medication, read my full article at AgingCare.com. I also offer tips on checking BP in this post: Why I Love Home Blood Pressure Monitors.
Last but not least, I provide more guidance on figuring out hypertension treatment here: 6 Steps to Better High Blood Pressure Treatment for Older Adults.
How Can I Control My Blood Pressure
You can often lower your blood pressure by changing your day-to-day habits and by taking medication if needed. Treatment, especially if you have other medical conditions such as diabetes, requires ongoing evaluation and discussions with your doctor.
Lifestyle changes you can make to help prevent and lower high blood pressure:
In addition to recommending lifestyle changes, your doctor will likely prescribe medication to lower your blood pressure to a safe level. Isolated systolic hypertension, the most common form of high blood pressure in older adults, is treated in the same way as regular high blood pressure but may require more than one type of blood pressure medication. You may try several kinds or combinations of medications before finding a plan that works best for you. Medication can control your blood pressure, but it can’t cure it. If your doctor starts you on medication for high blood pressure, you may need to take it long-term.
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High Blood Pressure Guidelines And Treatments For Seniors
According to the American Heart Association, a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher constitutes high blood pressure , also known as hypertension. Nearly half of American adults have high blood pressure, and once it develops, it usually lasts a lifetime.
High blood pressure is called the silent killer because it typically presents with no noticeable symptoms. Some people may not find out they have it until they begin experiencing serious problems with their heart, brain or kidneys. The good news is that medication and lifestyle changes can help lower blood pressure and keep it under control.
Diagnosing High Or Low Blood Pressure
Only one of your numbers needs to be higher than it should be to be diagnosed with high blood pressure, and only one needs to be lower than it should be to be diagnosed with low blood pressure.
So if your top number is over 140 or the bottom number is over 90, you may be diagnosed with , regardless of the other number. If your top number is under 90 or your bottom number is under 60, you may be diagnosed with . Use the to see where your numbers sit.
If your top number is consistently higher than 140mmHg, but the bottom number is healthy – this is known as Isolated Systolic Hypertension. If the bottom number is consistently higher than 90mmHg but the top number is healthy – this is known as Isolated Diastolic Hypertension.
Making sure your readings arent a one-off
A single high reading doesnt necessarily mean you have high blood pressure, as many things can affect your blood pressure throughout the day, such as the temperature, when you last ate, and if youre feeling stressed.
Your doctor or nurse will probably want to measure your blood pressure a number of times over a few weeks to make sure the reading wasnt just a one off and that your blood pressure stays high over time.
Read about how , getting a , the you might have if you have a high blood pressure reading, and .
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Elderly Blood Pressure Ranges
Recently, the American Heart Association updated their guidance to indicate that people age 65 and older should ideally have a blood pressure reading lower than 130/80 mm Hg . The first number measures artery pressure when the heart is pumping. The secondary number is diastolic, which measures the arterial pressure when the heart is resting. Lifestyle changes are suggested for seniors who have higher blood pressure levels, but are still lower than 130/80 mm Hg. However, medication is usually needed for readings higher than this range.
Diagnostic Consideration Of Secondary Hypertension
In addition to differential diagnosis in a treatment plan on the initial visit, attention to secondary hypertension should be paid in patients who show a marked increase in blood pressure in a short period, poor control and treatment resistance. In particular, renovascular hypertension due to atherosclerosis or primary aldosteronism, an endocrine hypertension, must be considered in elderly patients.
Many elderly patients take multiple drugs, and drug-induced hypertension may occur. An inquiry regarding prescriptions in other hospitals/clinics or department and health foods/supplements is important. An inquiry regarding Licorice-containing substances and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is essential. It was reported that there was an increase in blood pressure in elderly patients undergoing molecular target therapy for diseases such as cancer and age-related macular degeneration .
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How To Avoid Hypertension
Many factors come together to cause hypertension. While you cant change things like your age, genetics, or medical conditions there are many steps you can take every day to improve your numbers .
Start by increasing your intake of fruits and vegetable and decreasing your intake of salt. Excessive sodium consumption is of the number one controllable causes of the condition.
Its also important to control your weight and exercise frequently as well as avoid smoking and alcohol consumption. Other factors to consider include stress levels and nutritional deficiencies.
What Do Blood Pressure Numbers Mean
Blood pressure readings are composed of two numbersfor example, 120/80 mm Hg. Both numbers are an important part of your blood pressure reading.
The top number measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats. The bottom number measures the pressure in your arteries between each heart beat.
The standard unit of measure, mm Hg, stands for “millimeters of mercury.” Mercury pressure gauges have been replaced with electronic pressure gauges, but the abbreviation is still used.
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Effects Of Antihypertensive Therapy In The Elderly
In elderly patients, medical intervention should aim either to maintain their activities of daily living or to prevent decline in activities of daily living. The prevention of cardiovascular disease, a major complication of hypertension, is consistent with this purpose. In addition, effects of antihypertensive therapy of cognitive function and fall/fracture are also important as factors for being bedridden.
Randomized, placebo-controlled studies have shown the preventive effects of antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular diseases . In these studies, diuretics, -blockers and Ca channel blockers were chosen as first-line drugs. According to a meta-analysis of nine major clinical studies on the treatment of hypertension in elderly patients , antihypertensive drug treatment significantly reduced all-cause mortality by 12%, death from stroke by 36%, death from coronary artery disease by 25%, the incidence of stroke by 35% and that of coronary artery disease by 15%.
Table 2 Placebo-controlled comparative studies investigating the preventive effects of antihypertensive drugs on cardiovascular events involving elderly patients
Does Normal Blood Pressure Change With Age
Just as our blood pressure readings change according to our posture, sleep time, and stress levels throughout the day, our blood pressure changes as we age. Despite the fluctuating or changing measurements, we should maintain a normal range. As we age, we can expect changes in our cardiovascular health, including our blood pressure and cholesterol levels. There are several factors that reflect our blood pressure levels over the years, including normal blood pressure for seniors.
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What Is Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as the heart pumps blood. When a health care professional measures your blood pressure, they use a blood pressure cuff around your arm that gradually tightens. The results are given in two numbers. The first number, called systolic blood pressure, is the pressure caused by your heart contracting and pushing out blood. The second number, called diastolic blood pressure, is the pressure when your heart relaxes and fills with blood.
A blood pressure reading is given as the systolic blood pressure number over the diastolic blood pressure number. Blood pressure levels are classified based on those two numbers.
- Low blood pressure, or hypotension, is systolic blood pressure lower than 90 or diastolic blood pressure lower than 60. If you have low blood pressure, you may feel lightheaded, weak, dizzy, or even faint. It can be caused by not getting enough fluids, blood loss, some medical conditions, or medications, including those prescribed for high blood pressure.
- Normal blood pressure for most adults is defined as a systolic pressure of less than 120 and a diastolic pressure of less than 80.
- Elevated blood pressure is defined as a systolic pressure between 120 and 129 with a diastolic pressure of less than 80.
- High blood pressure is defined as 130 or higher for the first number, or 80 or higher for the second number.
The Definition For What Is Considered High Blood Pressure Has Been Tightened Here’s What You Need To Know
If you didn’t have high blood pressure before, there’s a good chance you do now.
In 2017, new guidelines from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and nine other health organizations lowered the numbers for the diagnosis of hypertension to 130/80 millimeters of mercury and higher for all adults. The previous guidelines set the threshold at 140/90 mm Hg for people younger than age 65 and 150/80 mm Hg for those ages 65 and older.
This means 70% to 79% of men ages 55 and older are now classified as having hypertension. That includes many men whose blood pressure had previously been considered healthy. Why the change?
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What You Should Know About Fluctuating Blood Pressure In The Elderly
As you help monitor your loved ones blood pressure, keep in mind that if numbers fluctuate slightly throughout the day, thats normal. Several factors influence your blood pressure numbers. For example, your blood pressure may be lower if youre resting and higher if youre stressed. This means you may have a normal reading in the morning and an elevated number in the afternoon.
If youre concerned about excessive fluctuation in your loved ones blood pressure numbers, keep the following tips in mind:
- Read the instructions to ensure youre using your home blood pressure monitor equipment correctly. Variations in how you measure your loved ones blood pressure can result in different readings.
- Bring your home monitor to your next doctors appointment to compare readings.
- Be aware of white coat hypertension. In some cases, a persons blood pressure may be high at a doctors office but normal at home. This could be attributed to the stress related to a doctors appointment.
Your loved ones doctor may want you to keep a blood pressure diary with several readings a day for a couple of weeks to monitor any variations.