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Less Erythropoietin Than Normal
All of the cells in your body live for a certain amount of time and then die. Your body is always working to make new cells to replace the ones that have died. Red blood cells live for about 115 days. Your kidneys help your body make red blood cells.
Healthy kidneys make a hormone called erythropoietin . EPO sends a signal to the body to make more red blood cells. If your kidneys are not working as well as they should, they can’t make enough EPO. Without enough EPO, your body doesn’t know to make enough red blood cells. This means fewer red blood cells are available for carrying oxygen through your body, leading to anemia.
How To Treat Anemia
Treating anemia depends on whats causing it.
For example, if your anemia is caused by an underlying health condition, your doctor will work with you to treat that specific condition. Often, this can help improve anemia.
Anemia caused by inadequate intake of dietary iron, vitamin B12, or folate may be treated with nutritional supplements. In some cases, injections of B12 may be needed if it isnt absorbed properly from the digestive tract.
Your doctor or a nutritionist may work with you to prescribe a diet that contains the appropriate amounts of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that may be lacking in your current diet.
In some cases, if anemia is severe, doctors may use drugs called erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to increase red blood cell production in the bone marrow. These drugs work in a similar way to the hormone erythropoietin, which your kidneys naturally produce.
If severe bleeding occurs or hemoglobin levels are very low, a blood transfusion may be necessary. During a blood transfusion, youll receive blood donated by an individual who has a matching blood type.
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What Are The Treatments For Anemia
Treatment for anemia varies according to cause, severity, and your general health, among other factors. Eating a healthy, balanced diet is important when you have an anemia diagnosis.
Here are medical treatments for some forms of anemia:
- If you have a vitamin or iron deficiency, your doctor can recommend supplements or injections.
- If you are anemic due to chronic blood loss from an ulcer or heavy menstrual periods, for example, your doctor will address the underlying cause as well as recommending supplements or dietary changes.
- Aplastic and hemolytic anemia treatment can include medications, blood transfusions, and bone marrow transplants. If the condition is mild, you may not need treatment.
- is treated with medication to reduce symptoms, and possibly or a stem cell or .
- If your blood count becomes severely low from hemorrhage, injury, or other conditions that cause a sudden large blood loss, it can be life threatening and requires immediate hospitalization and treatment by stabilization and transfusion.
Symptoms Of Anemia During Pregnancy
When anemia develops, the blood cannot carry as much oxygen as it normally does. At first, anemia causes no symptoms or only vague symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, and light-headedness. Affected women may look pale. If anemia is severe, the pulse may be rapid and weak, women may faint, and blood pressure may be low.
If anemia persists, the following may result:
The fetus may not receive enough oxygen, which is needed for normal growth and development, especially of the brain.
Pregnant women may become excessively tired and short of breath.
After delivery, the risk of infection in the woman is increased.
The bleeding that normally occurs during labor and delivery can dangerously worsen anemia in these women.
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Prevalence Of High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Thalassemia Sickle
1University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, Canada
Effective response to emerging health issues requires public health programs and policies that evolve based on trends in population health and health risk factors . Health surveillance plays a key role by gathering information and shedding light on spatial and temporal variations in health measures. Health surveillance is particularly relevant in countries that exhibit rapid economic development, given that changes to population health measures and risk factors are imminent and largely dynamic . Thus, in countries that exhibit rapid economic growth, research studies should aim to examine the links between social, demographic, and economic contextual factors and health, in order to guide policy and address new emerging health issues .
2.1. Exposure Variables Used in the Analysis
2.2. Outcome Variables
2.3. Statistical Analysis
Causes And Risk Factors
Several medical issues can cause high hemoglobin levels. Many conditions that lead to high hemoglobin are chronic diseases, so you and your doctor might already know that you have the underlying cause before it affects your hemoglobin.
Sometimes dehydration can make your hemoglobin level seem high when measured with a blood test, even when you dont have a high total amount of hemoglobin. Regaining normal hydration will usually correct your hemoglobin measurement if it is rechecked.
Lifestyle causes of elevated hemoglobin levels include:
- Smoking: High hemoglobin levels are very common in smokers.
- High altitude: When you are in a high elevation, the lower oxygen pressure in your environment makes your body require more hemoglobin to maintain your oxygen needs.
- Erythropoietin: This natural kidney hormone stimulates red blood cell production. Some people need to take this hormone to compensate for a medical condition. It is also misused in some situations that involve physical or athletic performance.
Medical conditions that cause high hemoglobin include:
- Chronic low oxygen level
- Liver or kidney cancer
- Polycythemia vera: A blood disorder in which the body makes too many red blood cells
These conditions can cause your body to make more red blood cells, and hemoglobin is a component of red blood cells.
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Key Points To Remember
- High blood pressure is common in children with CKD.
- High blood pressure increases the chance that kidney disease will get worse and that heart and vascular disease will develop.
- If your child has CKD, its important to have the childs blood pressure checked.
- Blood pressure should be measured with a cuff that is the right size for the child.
- Normal blood pressure is lower in children. To determine whether your childs blood pressure is high, the doctor will compare his/her reading with charts that list normal ranges for children based on gender, age and size.
- A doctor who specializes in treating CKD and high blood pressure in children should be involved in your childs care.
- Treatment for high blood pressure may include taking medications and making lifestyle changes, such as following a healthy diet, losing weight and exercising regularly. Cutting back on salt may also be recommended.
- The dose of any medication prescribed for your child should be adjusted for the childs age and size.
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What If I Have More Questions
Speak to your childs doctor and to other members of the health care team. You may also find the following resources from the National Kidney Foundation helpful.
- Nutrition for Children With Chronic Kidney Disease: A Guide for ParentsGeneral information about the proper diet to help your child do well.
- Keep Sodium Under Control: How to Spice Up Your CookingIf a low-salt diet is recommended, this booklet gives you tips about cooking with less salt.
- You can also learn more about high blood pressure at the Web site of the Pediatric Hypertension Association at www.pediatrichypertension.org
For more information about kidney disease in children .
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What Causes Iron Deficiency Anemia
You may be at risk for getting iron deficiency anemia if:
- You are a woman who has heavy periods.
- You are a woman who is pregnant, just gave birth or is breastfeeding.
- You recently had a major surgery or injury.
- You have a history of celiac disease, ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease.
- You have had gastric bypass or other weight loss surgery.
- You are a vegetarian or vegan with a diet that lacks iron rich foods.
- You have bleeding in your gastrointestinal tract as a result of inflammation of the stomach or esophagus, ulcers in your stomach or bowel, hemorrhoids, diverticulitis or cancers in your GI tract.
- You have history of frequent nose bleeds with major blood loss.
- You donate blood often.
What Is Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic anemia is a blood disorder that makes your red blood cells break down or die faster than your body can replace them with new blood cells. People may develop hemolytic anemia due to genetic conditions that cause anemia. Sometimes, people have mild hemolytic anemia symptoms that go away after treatment. Many times, healthcare providers can cure hemolytic anemia after finding out what caused the condition. Left untreated, however, severe hemolytic anemia can cause serious heart trouble.
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Cramping And Tingling In Limbs
The large leg muscles require a lot of blood and oxygen to function. Oxygen deprivation causes them to work overtime and cause fatigue, weakness, severe cramps, and restless leg syndrome , which may contribute to insomnia.
Anemic patients may feel a crawling or itchy sensation in the feet and legs, which can worsen at night.
How Does Kidney Disease Cause Elevated Blood Pressure
Renal disease has a direct impact on blood pressure because of the damage it causes to the kidneys. Renal disease, when left untreated for a long time, will slowly start to damage the arteries that surround the kidneys. Damage to the arteries causes the arteries to narrow. When the arteries are narrowed, the kidneys are not able to receive the enough blood.
In an effort to counter the lack of blood flow, the kidneys react, but they react in the wrong way. The kidneys, wrongly, believe that the lack of blood is caused by dehydration. To fix the problem and get proper blood flow back, the kidneys release a type of hormone that encourages the body to retain water and sodium.
Retaining water and sodium would be helpful if the kidneys were dehydrated, but they arent. The retained water and sodium actually causes blood pressure to increase, which can cause even more problems.
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Association Of Hb Level With Sbp And Dbp
Spearmans correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between the various clinical and biochemical parameters and SBP and DBP. SBP was also positively correlated with Hb and DBP .
Correlations of SBP and DBP with various clinical and biochemical parameters
Hb has a significant positive correlation with SBP and DBP, and the positive correlation persists after correcting for age, serum creatinine , BMI, and low-density lipoprotein in males and females separately .
Correlations of Hb with SBP and DBP after adjustment for confounding factors in the male population
Correlations of Hb with SBP and DBP after adjustment for confounding factors in the female population
Symptoms Of Mild To Moderate Anemia That Develop Slowly
When anemia is mild or develops slowly, symptoms may not be noticeable at first because the body may be able to adjust to a slow decline in red blood cells. Symptoms can also be mild or vague. Symptoms can include:
Difficulties with memory and concentration
Mild with exertion that goes away with rest
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What Are The Diet And Nutrition Tips For Anemia
Your diet could help boost the number of red blood cells you have, particularly if you are vitamin or iron deficient. Foods that may help increase your red blood cell count include:
- Iron-rich foods like meat, eggs, soy, and leafy greens
- Food high in vitamin B12 like fish, meat, poultry, eggs and dairy
- Foods fortified with iron or vitamin B12
- Supplements containing iron or vitamin B12, or vitamin C, which helps you absorb iron
If you eat a plant-based diet and have anemia or additional risk factors for anemia, talk with your healthcare professional about what supplements you should take. You may not get sufficient iron and B12 from vegetables and plant-based material.
There are some foods to consider avoiding if you have anemia, including:
- Alcohol. Heavy alcohol use can affect the bone marrow and suppress the production of red blood cells.
- Coffee and tea. These products can reduce iron absorption, which could contribute to iron deficiency anemia.
- Folic acid. This is another B vitamin, necessary for a healthy blood cell count. But if you have too much folic acid, it can mask a vitamin B12 deficiency. If you are anemic, tell your doctor if you eat a lot of legumes, eggs, asparagus or take folic acid supplements.
Ask your healthcare professional for guidance before making any significant changes to your diet if you have been diagnosed with anemia.
Anemia And Heart Failure
Anemia happens when your body doesnt produce enough healthy red blood cells, which are tasked with providing oxygen to the tissues in your body, the Mayo Clinic points out. A common type of anemia, iron-deficiency anemia, is caused by low iron levels iron is an essential building block of healthy red blood cells.
When you have iron-deficiency anemia, you may notice fatigue, weakness, pale skin, chest pain, a rapid heartbeat or shortness of breath, among other symptoms, says Mayo Clinic. Mild cases of iron-deficiency anemia usually dont cause major complications, but more serious cases can have more serious consequences. But always bring these symptoms to the attention of your doctor.
When you dont produce enough iron, your heart must pump more blood to compensate for the lack of oxygen, which can lead to an enlarged heart or heart failure, explains George Bakris, MD, a professor of medicine and director of the American Heart Association Comprehensive Hypertension Center at University of Chicago Medicine. About half of all people with heart failure have anemia, according to the American College of Cardiology.
If you are diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia, discuss it with your primary care physician first and foremost to understand why this is occurring, Dr. Bakris says.
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What Causes Ckd In Adults And Children
In adults, the major causes of CKD are diabetes and high blood pressure. At present, these are not major causes of CKD in children. However, diabetes and high blood pressure are increasing among children, mostly because growing numbers of children are overweight. Being overweight greatly increases the risk of developing serious health problems like diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol and CKD. Currently, the major causes of CKD in children include:
- Problems in the urinary tract that block the normal flow of urine
- Inherited diseases such as polycystic kidney disease , which causes fluid-filled pouches to form in the kidneys and enlarge over time
- Conditions that damage the filtering units of the kidneys such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
- Hemolytic uremic syndrome , a disease that affects both the blood and blood vessels. Kidney failure may occur as a result of damage to small blood vessels in the kidneys. HUS may also affect other organs such as the heart and brain.
When Is A Fall A Symptom Of An Underlying Problem
Anemia and falls are very common and closely linked in older adults and the elderly. Anemia can cause , difficulty concentrating, , and other problems that make it difficult to maintain balance during everyday activities. However, older adults and the elderly may become accustomed to these symptoms over time and not realize there is an underlying problem, even after falling.
In fact, falling may be the first sign that an older adult has anemia or another serious underlying medical condition. Falling can also cause injuries, such as a fractured hip, that can lead to bleeding. This can cause or worsen anemia.
Seek prompt medical care if you, or an older adult you know, have fallen, even if there appears to be no injuries. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of underlying anemia can reduce the risk of additional falls and injuries and other serious complications.
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Unusually Pale Complexion And Nails
The skin is the largest organ in the human body. A healthy complexion has a glow, which is due to the capillaries under the skin that lend a pink touch.
With anemia, those capillaries lose red blood cells or function inefficiently and dont have the natural pink tint. The skin may even take on a yellowish tone.
Therefore, pale skin is a common sign of anemia. It can be all over the body or limited to one area, such as the face, gums, or inside the lips or lower eyelids.
Likewise, fingernails that are all-white, yellowish, or thin may indicate anemia. Other signs can be abnormalities such as upwardly or inwardly curved nails, raised ridges, and brittleness. Your doctor will evaluate your symptoms and will likely perform tests.