Reducing The Sodium Intake From 3300 Mg To 2300 Mg Daily May Save $18 Billion In Health Care Costs
With the fast-food industry still on the rise in the US, more and more people live unhealthy, sedentary lives. And junk food is full of unnecessary sodium, which increases the prevalence of hypertension. Stats on high blood pressure show that if overall sodium intake was reduced in the US, it could prevent over 11 million high blood pressure cases each year.
What Do Blood Pressure Numbers Indicate
The higher number represents the pressure while the heart is beating.
The lower number represents the pressure when the heart is resting between beats.
The systolic pressure is always stated first and the diastolic pressure second. For example if a persons blood pressure is 122/76 , the systolic pressure is 122 and the diastolic pressure is 76.
What Is The Treatment For High Blood Pressure
Mild high blood pressure can often be treated by making lifestyle changes, including:
- losing weight
- limiting your alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks per day for men, or 1 drink per day for women with high blood pressure
However, lifestyle changes may not be enough. Some people also need medication to help reduce blood pressure levels to normal. While medicines are usually very effective at lowering blood pressure, they may cause side effects in some people.
Usually doctors will start a person on a low dose of a medicine and see how it goes. If it doesnt work well enough, or if there are troublesome side effects, other medicines will be used, sometimes in combination, until the blood pressure is controlled. This can take time. Some people will take medicines for life, although others will find that continuing to lose weight and changing their diet reduces the need for medicines.
Someone whose blood pressure is very high or causing symptoms such as headache, or if they have conditions such as heart disease or diabetes, may need urgent treatment with medicines to bring the blood pressure down to normal levels.
The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners recommends that you regularly review with your doctor or specialist any medications you are taking for high blood pressure or high cholesterol to assess the ongoing benefits and risks. For further information, visit the Choosing Wisely Australia website.
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High Blood Pressure Numbers In Pregnancy Remark An Astounding Prevalence In The Usone In 1217 Pregnancies
A person has gestational hypertension when their systolic blood pressure is 140 mmHg or higher, and/or their diastolic blood pressure is 90 mmHg or higher. Gestational hypertension usually causes a slight increase in blood pressure. However, some people experience severe hypertension, with dangerously high blood pressure numbers. In other words, thats the systolic blood pressure of 160 mmHg or higher and/or 110 mmHg or higher diastolic blood pressure.
To add, these high blood pressure numbers during pregnancy cause very severe complications. So this is when medical alert systems may come in handy, should an expectant parent need help. Even though the numbers for high blood pressure in pregnancies have been increasing, on the positive side, this can be prevented if pregnant individuals control their blood pressure regularly.
Rates Of High Blood Pressure Control Vary By Sex And Race
Uncontrolled high blood pressure is common however, certain groups of people are more likely to have control over their high blood pressure than others.
- A greater percentage of men have high blood pressure than women .3
- High blood pressure is more common in non-Hispanic black adults than in non-Hispanic white adults , non-Hispanic Asian adults , or Hispanic adults .3
- Among those recommended to take blood pressure medication, blood pressure control is higher among non-Hispanic white adults than in non-Hispanic black adults , non-Hispanic Asian adults , or Hispanic adults .3
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What Country Has The Highest Blood Pressure
In 2015, the prevalence of high blood pressure in women over the age of 18, was approximately 20%, and it was 24% in men. Central and Eastern Europe had the greatest prevalence of men with hypertension, with Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, and Slovenia leading the pack. Almost two in every five men in these countries had high blood pressure at the time of the study.
Conversely, Africa had the highest number of women with high blood pressure. Whats more, Niger, Chad, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Somalia were in the top five African countries. Close to one in every three women in these countries suffered from hypertension.
More Than 100 Million Americans Have High Blood Pressure Aha Says
The number of Americans at risk for heart attacks and strokes just got a lot higher. An estimated 103 million U.S. adults have high blood pressure, according to new statistics from the American Heart Association. Thats nearly half of all adults in the United States.
With the aging of the population and increased life expectancy, the prevalence of high blood pressure is expected to continue to increase, said epidemiologist Dr. Paul Muntner, co-chair of the group that wrote the AHAs Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics2018 Update, published Wednesday in Circulation.
The death rate from high blood pressure increased by nearly 11 percent in the United States between 2005 and 2015, and the actual number of deaths rose by almost 38 percent up to nearly 79,000 by 2015, according to the statistics. Worldwide, high blood pressure affects nearly a third of the adult population and is the most common cause of cardiovascular disease-related deaths, said Muntner, a professor and vice chair in the Department of Epidemiology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.
Guidelines published last November redefined high blood pressure, also known as hypertension, as a reading of 130 on top or 80 on the bottom. The standard used to be 140 over 90. The percentage of U.S. adults with high blood pressure jumped from 32 percent under the old definition to nearly 46 percent.
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Over 50% Of People With High Blood Pressure Have Chronic Kidney Disease
Hypertension is one of the main causes of kidney disease. High blood pressure damages blood vessels, which, as the high blood pressure facts show, at the same decreases the blood supply to vital organs, including the kidneys. In addition to this, hypertension damages the kidneys filtering units, which can result in kidneys not filtering the waste and excess fluids from a persons body.
On the other hand, chronic kidney disease can cause high blood pressure. Kidneys are responsible for keeping the blood pressure levels steady, and non-functioning kidneys cant do that, which can lead to an increase in blood pressure.
Heart Attack And Heart Disease
High blood pressure can damage your arteries by making them less elastic, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to your heart and leads to heart disease. In addition, decreased blood flow to the heart can cause:
- Chest pain, also called angina.
- Heart attack, which happens when the blood supply to your heart is blocked and heart muscle begins to die without enough oxygen. The longer the blood flow is blocked, the greater the damage to the heart.
- Heart failure, a condition that means your heart cant pump enough blood and oxygen to your other organs.
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Adverse Effects Of Antihypertensive Therapy
Concerns about toxicity resulting from antihypertensive therapy in the elderly have led many authors to advise restraint or even therapeutic nihilism with respect to the treatment of high blood pressure in this group. Theoretically, there are several reasons why the risk/benefit ratio for the treatment of high blood pressure might increase with age. It is believed that the elderly are particularly susceptible to many of the side effects of antihypertensive medication., For instance, elderly patients are more likely to develop hyponatremia and hypokalemia when treated with standard doses of diuretics., It is also thought that older patients are more likely to develop side effects such as depression and confusion when treated with antihypertensive medications that affect the central nervous system . There is good evidence to indicate that the baroreceptor reflex becomes less sensitive with age., As a result, the elderly could be more sensitive to the postural hypotensive effects of antihypertensive medications, with a consequent increased propensity for falls and fractures.
Even Athletes May Have High Blood Pressure Possibly
One-third of the high school, college and professional athletes who were screened by the Stanford sports cardiology clinic register as having high blood pressure, Stanford researchers have found.
These people are young and fit, with exercise habits that put the rest of us to shame. How can so many have elevated blood pressure?
“There are a lot of inputs into hypertension — for example, genetics, body composition and diet — and just because you’re an athlete you’re not excluded,” Moneghetti said. “But it also depends on how you measure blood pressure. We may just be having a whole lot of false positives.”
Until November 2017, the guidelines stated that blood pressure readings should be under 140/90 now, they say readings such be under 130/80. European guidelines remain at the 140/90 level.
It’s in that gray area, between the current U.S. and European guidelines, that most of the athletes in the study with elevated blood pressure fell: only 9% had readings over 140/90.
Fourth Misconception About High Blood Pressure Is About Treatment
Give up your favorite foods. Take drugs with annoying side effects. These are some things you might fear when you think about high blood pressure treatment. It is true that it may take some time to develop a treatment plan that works best for you, because high blood pressure often has several underlying causes. In many cases, the specific cause of high blood pressure may not be evident.
Your doctor will work closely with you to determine which combination of treatments works to best control high blood pressure. Your treatment plan is likely to include the following elements:
The DASH eating plan. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension plan includes eating less fat and saturated fat as well as eating more fresh fruits and vegetables and whole-grain foods. Limiting use of salt and alcohol can also help lower your high blood pressure. A dietitian can help you find ways to meet these goals without giving up your favorite foods or great flavor.
Weight Control. Being overweight increases your risk of developing high blood pressure. Following the DASH eating plan and getting regular exercise can help you lose weight. Ask your doctor to help you determine a goal. Your doctor can also refer you to other health care professionals for assistance in setting up a weight loss plan.
Alcohol may increase your blood pressure, as well, especially if you are drinking too much. Cutting back or abstaining might be essential.
Studies Show That More Than 30 Million People In The Us Suffer From Diabetes And 736% Of Them Have High Blood Pressure As Well
Hypertension statistics from 2018 also show that the link between diabetes and high blood pressure is an excessive caloric intake, a sedentary lifestyle, and insulin resistance. Lack of physical activity and excessive intake of calories lead to increased weight, which furthermore leads to insulin resistance, and high blood pressure.
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Why Are High Blood Pressure Rates Increasing
While the study didnt investigate this, doctors have a few theories. Larco says that population growth and aging may play a role. People are living longer and therefore may be at a higher risk of developing hypertension.
“With age, the arteries begin to stiffen and this also drives up blood pressure,” McNeely says.
Healthcare providers worldwide are also keeping a closer eye on blood pressure markers, which may be a contributing factor, Hoang Nguyen, MD, an interventional cardiologist at MemorialCare Heart & Vascular Institute at Orange Coast Medical Center in California, tells Verywell.
When more blood pressure cuffs are available in the community, it allows more hypertension to be detected, he notes.
Increasing rates of metabolic diseases like obesity are likely linked, too, McNeely says.
This has happened as fewer people live traditional lifestyles, she says. We drive cars and eat processed foods instead of walking places and eating more natural, low salt, lower fat and lower sugar diets. We tend to have more sedentary jobs than the populations of the pre-computer era. All these factors contribute to increases in blood pressure.
How Is Blood Pressure Measured
Blood pressure is measured using a machine called a blood pressure monitor.
A cuff is put over your arm. This cuff is attached to a machine which measures the pressure inside your arteries. When the machine is switched on the cuff tightens and then slowly loosens again. It is quick and painless. At the end, the machine will give a blood pressure reading.
Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury .
A blood pressure reading contains two numbers and will be written as a figure like 120/75
The first number is the pressure when your heart beats . The second number is when your heart relaxes .
During a blood pressure test, a blood pressure cuff is wrapped around your arm so a blood pressure monitor can measure your systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
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What Do Blood Pressure Numbers Mean
Blood pressure is measured using two numbers:
The first number, called systolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats.
The second number, called diastolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart rests between beats.
If the measurement reads 120 systolic and 80 diastolic, you would say, 120 over 80, or write, 120/80 mmHg.
What Is Normal Blood Pressure For Senior Citizens
Your blood pressure fluctuates throughout the day. Its lowest when you sleep but rises when youre active, excited, or stressed out. This is normal. However, its stable most of the time and should be under 120/80 mmHg. Lower is better, but very low blood pressure for elderly people is also an issue because it can make them feel lightheaded and contribute to falls.
|Higher than 120
The values above are for the general population. What should an elderly persons blood pressure be? Senior citizens differ from younger people in many ways. Age, frailty, other diseases, and the medication an older person takes all influence the approach to treatment.
When should we start treating high blood pressure for older adults? The most common threshold for beginning medications is 130/80 mmHg.
Overmedication of seniors is a serious problem. Treating multiple diseases, each with its own set of medications, can add up to over ten different pills per day, and every one of them can have side effects. Therefore, weighing the pros and cons of treating high blood pressure in seniors for every individual patient is necessary.
Too much medication can also cause orthostatic hypotension, that is, a temporary drop in blood pressure upon standing up. This can, in turn, lead to dizziness and cause falls. If overmedication is the cause, we have to rethink the doses. If the issue persists, consider getting a medical alert system.
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Impact Of The Treatment Of High Blood Pressure On Total Mortality
With the exception of the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program, none of the large multicenter trials shown in have demonstrated that treatment of high blood pressure has an impact on total mortality. Some have viewed this finding as a rationale for not recommending treatment for high blood pressure it should be noted, however, that the size of the samples used in these clinical trials were inadequate to test a hypothesis with regard to effects of treatment on total mortality. When the results of all randomized trials of the treatment of diastolic high blood pressure were recently pooled in a meta-analysis, it appeared that a small but significant reduction in total mortality may have occurred across all age groups. The data are inadequate, however, to draw conclusions about the impact of the treatment of high blood pressure on total mortality in persons over the age of 50.
The Prevalence Of Hypertension And Prehypertension Is Over 30% In Obese Adolescent Boys
According to important statistics of hypertension, the greatest risk factor of prehypertension and hypertension in children is being overweight or obese. A study has found that the combined prevalence of both conditions in obese adolescents is greater than 30% in boys and around 23%30% in girls. Furthermore, the study also notes that hypertension in childhood is associated with hypertension in adulthood, as well as premature death.
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Why Focus On High Blood Pressure
The Global Burden of Disease 2015 highlights that high blood pressure is the second biggest known global risk factor for disease after poor diet. In the UK, high blood pressure is the third biggest risk factor for disease after tobacco smoking and poor diet.
High blood pressure is, however, the largest single known risk factor for cardiovascular disease and related disability.
High blood pressure increases the risk of:
- heart failure
- coronary artery disease
It can also increase the risk of chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease, and vascular dementia.
Approximately 1 in 4 adults worldwide have high blood pressure. It is projected to affect more than 1.5 billion people around the world by 2025.
The Global Burden of Disease 2015 report estimated that high blood pressure was responsible for 10.7 million deaths worldwide.
Often described as a silent killer because it rarely causes symptoms, high blood pressure was responsible for around 75,000 deaths in 2015, according to the Global Burden of Disease report.
High blood pressure affects more than 1 in 4 adults in England, around 12.5 million people in 2015. The prevalence of high blood pressure for adults in England in 2015 was 31% among men and 26% among women, with little change over the last few years.
- a 17% reduction for coronary heart disease
- a 27% reduction for stroke
- a 28% reduction for heart failure
- a significant 13% reduction in all-cause mortality