Normal Blood Pressure For Children
Normal BP ranges vary in children by age. The University of Iowa Stead Family Childrens Hospital provides this chart:
|Normal Blood Pressure for Children
|112128 mm Hg
|6680 mm Hg
What is considered healthy for your child also varies by height, age, and sex. You can use Baylor College of Medicine’s calculator to see if your childs blood pressure reading is in a healthy range.
Risks Of High Blood Pressure
If your blood pressure is too high, it puts extra strain on your blood vessels, heart and other organs, such as the brain, kidneys and eyes.
Persistent high blood pressure can increase your risk of a number of serious and potentially life-threatening health conditions, such as:
- have a relative with high blood pressure
- are of black African or black Caribbean descent
- live in a deprived area
Making healthy lifestyle changes can sometimes help reduce your chances of getting high blood pressure and help lower your blood pressure if it’s already high.
What Is Normal Blood Pressure For Kids
If a child has high blood pressure and is younger than 6-years old, the cause is usually related to a medical condition. This could be a heart defect, kidney disease, genetic condition, or hormonal disorders. If a child is over the age of 6 and develops high blood pressure, the cause is likely due to excess weight, poor nutrition, and lack of exercise.
According to this blood pressure chart, here is what is considered normal blood pressure for kids:
- New born: systolic , diastolic
- Infant: systolic, diastolic
- Toddler: systolic, diastolic
- Preschooler: systolic, diastolic
- School-Aged: systolicChild , diastolic
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When To Check Blood Pressure
- If your blood pressure is normal , get it checked every year, or more often as your doctor suggests.
- If your blood pressure is elevated — a systolic blood pressure between 120 and 129 or diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 — your doctor will probably want to check it every 3-6 months. They will probably recommend lifestyle changes like more exercise and a better diet.
- If you have stage 1 hypertension — 130-139 over 89-90 — the doctor might suggest lifestyle changes and see you again in 3-6 months. Or they could tell you to make the changes and give you medication, then recheck your condition in a month. It depends on what other health conditions or risk factors you have.
- If you have stage 2 hypertension — 140/90 or higher — youâll likely get medication. You’ll also need to make lifestyle changes and see the doctor again in a month.
High Blood Pressure Categories
You can divide high blood pressure into five categories, according to guidelines from the American College of Cardiology:
- Normal: Normal blood pressure in adults is any blood pressure below 120/80.
- Elevated: In adults, elevated blood pressure is a systolic reading of 120-129 and a diastolic reading below 80.
- Hypertension stage I: This stage includes blood pressures ranges of 130-139 or 80-89 .
- Hypertension stage II: This stage includes blood pressures ranges above 140 or above 90 .
- Hypertensive crisis: Severely elevated blood pressure is defined as greater than 180 and/or 120 and associated with new or worsening organ damage.
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Why Diastolic Pressure Is Important Too
The findings about low diastolic blood pressure are intriguing, and they make sense intuitively, Dr. Conlin says. Diastolic pressure is measured during the point in the heart cycle when blood flows into the coronary arteries that feed the heart. When those arteries are clogged with fatty deposits, blood pressure beyond the narrowed areas will drop as blood works its way through the narrowed channels. As a result, part of the heart muscle may not get enough blood. Starved for oxygen and nutrients, the heart may become weak and prone to damage.
Symptoms Of Low Blood Pressure
On its own, low blood pressure does not always cause symptoms. If you have low blood pressure and you do not have any symptoms, you do not require treatment.
However, low blood pressure can sometimes mean that there is not enough blood flowing to your brain and other vital organs. As a result, you may experience some of the following symptoms:
- general weakness
If you experience the symptoms of hypotension after changing positions , it is known as postural – or orthostatic – hypotension. If you experience these symptoms after eating, it is known as postprandial hypotension.
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How To Lower Blood Pressure In The Elderly
Seniors dont have to settle for life with hypertension. Making these changes can help lower high blood pressure:
- Quit smoking: People who smoke are more likely to have high blood pressure. Its never too late to quit.
- Eat healthier: Eating lots of fruits and vegetables, as well as low-fat dairy products and whole grains, can help you lose weight and can lower your blood pressure. Eating less salt and less saturated fat and drinking less alcohol can also help.
- Exercise more: Seniors with high blood pressure should get at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days if not every day to help lose weight and lower blood pressure. Talk to your doctor about what kind of exercise is most appropriate.
- Take medication: If lifestyle changes alone arent enough to bring down your blood pressure, your doctor will prescribe medication as well. Taking blood pressure medication is very common. There are many different types available, including diuretics, beta blockers and ACE inhibitors. Seniors may need to try a few medications , alone or in combination, to find what works best for them.
The Definition For What Is Considered High Blood Pressure Has Been Tightened Here’s What You Need To Know
If you didn’t have high blood pressure before, there’s a good chance you do now.
In 2017, new guidelines from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and nine other health organizations lowered the numbers for the diagnosis of hypertension to 130/80 millimeters of mercury and higher for all adults. The previous guidelines set the threshold at 140/90 mm Hg for people younger than age 65 and 150/80 mm Hg for those ages 65 and older.
This means 70% to 79% of men ages 55 and older are now classified as having hypertension. That includes many men whose blood pressure had previously been considered healthy. Why the change?
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What Is A Good Resting Heart Rate By Age
Normal resting heart rate values can range from anywhere between 60-100 beats per minute . As cardiovascular fitness increases, the resting heart rate value decreases. Resting heart rate is the number of beats per minute the heart takes while a person is fully rested. It is an indicator of both fitness and general health.
The below tables provide appropriate charts for RHR as per age and sex.
Table 1. Resting heart rate values for men
Resting heart rate values for men
How Can I Control My Blood Pressure
You can often lower your blood pressure by changing your day-to-day habits and by taking medication if needed. Treatment, especially if you have other medical conditions such as diabetes, requires ongoing evaluation and discussions with your doctor.
Lifestyle changes you can make to help prevent and lower high blood pressure:
In addition to recommending lifestyle changes, your doctor will likely prescribe medication to lower your blood pressure to a safe level. Isolated systolic hypertension, the most common form of high blood pressure in older adults, is treated in the same way as regular high blood pressure but may require more than one type of blood pressure medication. You may try several kinds or combinations of medications before finding a plan that works best for you. Medication can control your blood pressure, but it can’t cure it. If your doctor starts you on medication for high blood pressure, you may need to take it long-term.
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Average Blood Pressure By Age
As you get older, your blood vessels tend to become stiffer and plaque can build up in them, which can raise your blood pressure. If your blood pressure becomes too high, you’re at a greater risk for heart disease, strokes, and more.
In 2015, the average blood pressure worldwide was 127/79 mm Hg in men, and 122/77 mm Hg in women, according to a study analysis published in Lancet.
When researchers for the National Center for Health Statistics looked at average blood pressure in U.S. adults between 2001 and 2008, the average reading was 122/71 mm Hg. The breakout was 124/72 mm Hg for men, and 121/70 mm Hg in women. It rose by age and was significantly higher in Black people.
The researchers found the following breakdown by age, sex, and race or ethnicity:
|Blood Pressure by Age
As the population ages and life expectancy increases, high blood pressure is becoming more common.
How To Measure Blood Pressure
Usually a nurse checks your blood pressure to make sure its not too low or too high before your doctors appointment. But you can also check your readings manually at home. You can use an inflatable cuff similar to those used at your doctors office. Or you can use a digital blood pressure monitor with automatic cuff inflation.
Read the directions carefully when measuring your blood pressure. Certain factors can cause a temporary rise in blood pressure. These factors include:
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Postural Or Orthostatic Hypotension
Postural or orthostatic hypotension occurs when your blood pressure falls after a sudden movement. For example, you may feel dizzy or faint after changing posture, such as sitting up from a lying position, or standing up from a sitting position. This may cause you to lose your balance and fall over. You may also feel light-headed, have blurred vision, or lose consciousness.
The symptoms of postural or orthostatic hypotension should only last a few minutes as your blood pressure adjusts to your new position. This type of low blood pressure tends to affect people more as they get older when it can lead to more frequent falls. Similar symptoms may also occur after exercise.
Get With The Guidelines
In 2017, the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology and nine other health organizations published revised guidelines for blood pressure.
They were updated “because research suggested that you can have complications from high blood pressure at lower levels than previously thought,” says Laura Andromalos, RD, CDE, nutrition program manager at Northwest Weight and Wellness Center in Everett, Washington, and a certified diabetes educator coach in the telehealth setting for Cecelia Health. “Previously, adults over 65 years old were considered to have high blood pressure at levels over 150/80 mmHg.”
We now know that the ideal of 120/80 lowers the risks for both heart attacks and strokes, according to the American Heart Association. However, each person is unique, so at every age, it’s important to work with your doctor to be sure your numbers fall within a range that is ideal for you and your overall health, Dr. Vaishnava says.
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How To Check Your Blood Pressure At Home
Its common to get your blood pressure checked at the doctors office. But did you know you can check it at home too? Better yet, its easy to do!
First, make sure you find a quiet place where you feel relaxed. WebMD, also recommends emptying your bladder first as a full bladder may affect your reading. If youre wearing a long sleeve shirt, roll it up, or if youre wearing tight-sleeved clothing, youll want to remove it. If you have a digital blood pressure monitor follow the instructions in the booklet.
Preventing High Blood Pressure
To keep your blood pressure in the normal range, your daily habits are key. These things help:
Donât smoke. Among the many health problems that smoking causes, it raises your blood pressure.
Make physical activity a habit. Most experts recommend at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity five or more times a week. Or you could do a harder activity for a shorter period of time per session.
Eat right. Read food labels to see how much sodium is in a serving. Check with your doctor to find out what your daily limit should be. Include a lot of vegetables and fruits, along with whatever else you choose to put on your plate.
Stick to a healthy weight. Extra pounds raise your blood pressure. If youâre not sure what a healthy weight would be for you, ask your doctor.
If you drink alcohol, limit it to no more than one drink a day if youâre a woman and up to two drinks a day if youâre a man.
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What Is The Recommended Blood Pressure For Someone Over 70
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While there is debate over how aggressively high blood pressure should be treated in older patients, the definition of a healthy blood pressure does not change with age for the general population.
Normal blood pressure is a reading below 120/80. The top number, 120, is systolic pressure, when the heart beats and is pumping blood. The bottom number, 80, is diastolic pressure, when the heart is at rest between beats. A healthy blood pressure would be below both these numbers, indicating a low risk of heart attacks and stroke.
High blood pressure starts at 140/90. The measurements in between are considered prehypertension.
Experts disagree about whether older patients should be treated with medication to get their blood pressure below 140/90, because that often requires using several drugs, which may interact with other medications, and the treatment can cause dizziness and increase the risk of falls.
Last year, a panel of experts relaxed recommendations for people 60 and older, saying drug treatment should only start at pressures of 150/90. Those guidelines, , recommended that people 60 and older whose pressure is over 140/90 but less than 150/90 could take other steps like losing weight, exercising and reducing salt intake, said Dr. Paul A. James, the first author. But patients 60 or older who already take medication to get their pressure below 140/90 should not change course, he said.
Side Effects Of High Blood Pressure
Dangers of untreated high blood pressure include stroke, heart attack, heart failure, vision loss, kidney failure, vascular dementia and sexual dysfunction, says Dr. Desai. Its one of the top risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation, which is the most common heart rhythm disorder worldwide and can lead to stroke, heart failure and reduced quality of life.
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Normal Blood Pressure Range
A normal blood pressure reading indicates that the heart and blood vessels are not working too hard pushing blood and that the blood is not exerting too much pressure on the walls of the vessels, says Aseem Desai, M.D., a cardiologist at Providence Mission Hospital in Southern California. Recent data from the American Heart Association suggests the optimal normal reading for adults over 20 is lower than 120/80 mmHgVirani S, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics 2021 update . American Heart Association Journal. 2021 143:e254-e743. .
Dr. Desai notes blood pressure can vary depending on a persons age, gender, race and ethnicity, but it should still fall within the general normal range. While numbers lower than 120/80 are generally considered normal, Dr. Desai adds, The target blood pressure for treatment varies depending on age and associated co-morbidities .
Previously, guidance for normal blood pressure for adults varied by gender and specific age, but new data states normal blood pressure for adults as a collective is less than 120/80 mmHgHigh Blood Pressure Symptoms and Causes. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed 7/16/2021. .
When it comes to race and ethnicity, Dr. Desai says certain groups have a higher rate of hypertension. Non-Hispanic Black people have a significantly higher rate of hypertension compared to non-Hispanic white people, and Hispanics and non-Hispanic Asians have lower rates than the first two, he says.
How The Review Was Done
The researchers did a systematic review, searching for studies up until September 2016.
They found 21 randomized controlled trials and 3 cohort studies of different blood pressure targets.
The key features of the studies were:
- people were 60 years of age or older and had hypertension and
- the aim was to lower systolic blood pressure to less than 150 mm Hg or to less than 140 mm Hg.
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Older Adults And Hypertension: Beyond The 2017 Guideline For Prevention Detection Evaluation And Management Of High Blood Pressure In Adults
Epidemiology of Hypertension in Older Adults
Hypertension is one of the primary modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease and its prevalence and severity both increase with age. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey , 70% of adults 65 years have hypertension.1 This number will continue to rise as our population ages as 15% of the US population was 65 years old in 2014 and this is expected to increase to 20% by 2050.2
Despite having the highest prevalence of hypertension and greatest risk for CV morbidity and mortality, older adults are frequently undertreated for elevated blood pressure . This group has been traditionally excluded or underrepresented in clinical trials due to concerns regarding frailty, fall risk, poor renal function, abnormal hemodynamic adaptation, and higher risk for autonomic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and polypharmacy. With advancing age, the gap between chronological and biological age widens and chronological age may be a poor surrogate for biological age.3 Furthermore, chronological age cutoffs used to identify older patients across guidelines are inconsistent and BP treatment targets remain controversial.
Hypertension Guidelines Reviewed
Table 1: A Comparison of Blood Pressure Thresholds and Targets between ACC/AHA, ACP/AAFP, and ESC/ESH Guidelines
|SBP 130-139 mmHgDBP 70-79mmHg
Hypertension Management in Older Adults with History of Coronary Artery Disease
Figure 1:Figure 1: