What Are The Common Types Of High Blood Pressure Medications
There are a number of types and classes of drugs available for the management and treatment of high blood pressure . Your doctor or other health care professional will prescribe a drug that fits your specific needs based on your medical condition, and any other existing health problems you may have, for example, kidney disease, heart disease, or diabetes. Your doctor also may recommend other therapies and lifestyle changes like getting more exercise, managing stress, and eating a healthy diet.
This information will provide a list of high blood pressure medication generic and brand names, their uses , and common side effects.
Home Blood Pressure Monitoring
Some people buy their own blood pressure monitor to use at home. This means you can measure your blood pressure on an ongoing basis.
The blood pressure readings you do at home are as good as those done by your doctor.
If you decide to buy one, it’s important to get the correct cuff size. If the cuff is too big or too small, it can give an inaccurate reading.
If you take your own blood pressure and get an unusually high reading, take it a second time after at least five minutes. If it’s still high and you’re worried, contact your nurse or GP.
Side Effects Of Blood Pressure Medications
Occasionally, side effects only happen when you first start taking a new medication or a higher dose. As your body gets used to the medicines the side effects improve or go away.
If you have side effects which dont go awaySometimes side effects dont go away and can affect your day to day life. If this happens, its important that you dont simply stop taking them because your blood pressure will go back up.
Instead, talk to your doctor because they will be able to try a lower dose of your medication, a different medication, or a different combination of medications. Often this will lower your blood pressure with no problems at all.
If you have tried different options and youre still experiencing side effects, your GP can refer you to a . They can often help you get the right balance between controlling your blood pressure and keeping the side effects to a minimum, and might be able to try different treatments.
What are the possible side effects?The side effects vary with . They also vary from person to person. For example, can cause a dry cough in some people, but dizziness or an upset stomach in others. The leaflet that comes with your medication will include a list of possible side effects.
A common side effect is feeling faint or dizzy when you go from sitting or lying down to standing up, especially at night. This is called postural hypotension, and can happen with any blood pressure medication.
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Normal Vs High Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is shown in two numbers: systolic and diastolic.
The systolic number measures the pressure of your blood in your blood vessels when the heart beats. The diastolic number measures the pressure of your blood in your blood vessels when the heart rests between beats. For example, a blood pressure reading would be 120/80.
- If your blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg most of the time, it is considered normal.
- If your blood pressure is above 120/80 but below 140/90 most of the time, it is considered pre-hypertension
- If your blood pressure is 140/90 or higher most of the time, it is considered high blood pressure, also known as hypertension
What Are Other Ways I Can Lower My Blood Pressure
In addition to taking medicine to control your blood pressure, you can take other steps to help keep your blood pressure levels healthy.
- Get regular physical activity. Staying physically active is one of the best things you can do for your health. Physical activity helps keep your heart and blood vessels strong. It also can help you keep a healthy weight.
- Do not smoke. Smoking damages your blood vessels and greatly increases your risk of not only high blood pressure but also heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
- Eat healthy foods. Choosing healthy meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Keep a healthy weight. Having overweight or obesity means your heart must work harder to pump blood and oxygen around the body. Staying at a healthy weight reduces the stress on your heart and reduces your risk for heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
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Location Of Your Sinuses
There are four pairs of sinuses within your head and they are the air-filled spaces above, behind and below your eyes.
Maxillary sinuses are located beneath your checks to the sides of your nose.
Your frontal sinuses are located in the bone above your eyes.
And the more deeper sinuses are Ethmoid and Sphenoid sinuses which lies deeper in your skull than any other sinuses.
So Which Is The Best Medicine Or Combination Of Medicines
The one or ones chosen may depend on factors such as:
- Whether you have other medical problems.
- Your ethnic origin.
- Whether you take other medication.
- Possible side-effects.
- Beta-blockers and calcium-channel blockers can also treat angina.
- ACE inhibitors also treat heart failure.
- Some medicines are not suitable if you are pregnant.
- Some medicines are thought to be better if you have diabetes.
- Some medicines tend to work better than others in people of Afro-Caribbean origin.
If you do not have any other medical problems that warrant a particular medicine then current UK guidelines give the following recommendations as to usual medicines that should be used. These recommendations are based on treatments and combinations of treatments that are likely to give the best control of the blood pressure with the least risk of side-effects or problems.
Treatment is guided by the A/C, A+C, A+C+D approach, where:
- A = ACE inhibitor or ARB.
- C = calcium-channel blocker.
- D = diuretic.
The suggested stepwise approach is as follows:
However, individuals can vary. Sometimes, if one medicine does not work so well or causes side-effects, a switch to a different class of medicine may work well.
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Which Drugs Work Best For Resistant High Blood Pressure
If you have resistant high blood pressure , you are probably already doing a lot to lower it. But a study suggests that people with resistant hypertension rarely get two particularly effective drugs, and often they get a drug combination that’s not very helpful.
Resistant hypertension occurs when blood pressure stays high despite taking three or more drugs, or when a person needs four or more drugs to reach blood pressure goals. Colorado researchers reviewed insurance claims for more than 140,000 such people. Only 3% were receiving chlorthalidone , a diuretic that several studies suggest is more effective at reducing blood pressure and curbing bad cardiovascular consequences than the most-often-prescribed diuretic, hydrochlorothiazide .
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Side Effects Of Sinus Medication
Because of sinus medicine high blood pressure can likely increase drastically as these medicines may affect the functionality of your stress hormone. Moreover, sinus drugs have a tendency to make your kidneys work slower than normal.
This causes the slow down of your blood filtering and as a result more pressure is built-up in your blood vessels.
Research states that two of the main active ingredients present in the most common sinus drugs have proven to increase your blood pressure.
If you have hypertension it is recommended that you not take any sinus medication for more than ten days.
What Increases Your Risk
Things that increase your risk for high blood pressure include:
- A family history of high blood pressure.
- Eating a lot of sodium .
- Drinking more than 2 alcoholic drinks a day or more than 14 drinks a week for men or 9 drinks a week for women.
- Being overweight or obese.
- Lack of exercise or physical activity.
- Race. People of African, South Asian, First Nations, Inuit or Metis descent are more likely to get high blood pressure, often have more severe high blood pressure, and are more likely to get the condition at an earlier age than others. Why they are at greater risk is not known.
Other possible risk factors include:
What Are The Benefits And Risks Of Blood Pressure Medicines
The benefits of blood pressure medicines are clear: Blood pressure medicines can help you keep your blood pressure at healthy levels and therefore greatly reduce your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
In general, the risks of taking blood pressure medicines are low. However, all medicines have risks. Talk with your doctor or health care professional about the risks of high blood pressure medicines.
Do not stop taking your current medicine without talking to your doctor or health care professional first.
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Classes Of Blood Pressure Medications
Drugs that treat high blood pressure are known as antihypertensives. There are many so-called classes of antihypertensives and many drugs within each class. This results in a large number of drugs doctors can use to treat high blood pressure. To assist doctors in choosing treatment, they follow guidelines and recommendations from experts in the field.
Commonly prescribed classes of medications include:
Thiazide diuretics. These drugs work by increasing the amount of fluid the body eliminates through urination. A lot of people call diuretics water pills. By also reducing your bodys volume of blood, pressure on the artery walls decreases. Common side effects of diuretics are increased urination, , dizziness, and sensitivity to sunlight.
Calcium channel blockers. This class relaxes blood vessels and decreases heart rate. Possible side effects include heart , , , , and dizziness.
ACE inhibitors. These drugs block an enzyme to reduce the bodys amount of angiotensin. Less angiotensin helps relax blood vessels. Common side effects of ACE inhibitors are skin and a dry .
Angiotensin II receptor blockers. This class directly blocks angiotensin to relax blood vessels. Common side effects are and lightheadedness, especially when standing up from a seated position.
Beta blockers. These drugs block adrenalin, lower blood pressure by decreasing your heart rate and the force of each beat.
What Else Do You Need To Make Your Decision
Check the facts
- You’re right. Your doctor might recommend that you take medicine if you have very high blood pressure or if you have organ damage or other health problems such as diabetes.
- Sorry, that’s not right. Your doctor might recommend that you take medicine if you have very high blood pressure or if you have organ damage or other health problems such as diabetes.
- It may help to go back and read “Get the Facts.” Your doctor may advise you to take medicine if your blood pressure is very high, you have signs of organ damage, or if you have heart failure, coronary artery disease, diabetes, or kidney disease.
- You’re right. Even with pills, you will need healthy habits for the rest of your life to lower your risk for heart attack and stroke.
- Sorry, that’s not right. Even with pills, you will need healthy habits for the rest of your life to lower your risk for heart attack and stroke.
- It may help to go back and read “Get the Facts.” Even with pills, you will need healthy habits for the rest of your life to lower your risk for heart attack and stroke.
1. How sure do you feel right now about your decision?
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Which Medication Is Most Suitable
Different medications will be more suitable for different people, depending on various factors. These include how old you are and whether you have any other medical conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure or . Your sex and skin color may also play a role.
Many people only have to take one type of medication to successfully lower their blood pressure. Others may also need a second or third medicine. Using a combination of medicines is more effective because each one works in a different way. If you take several antihypertensive medications, it can be a good idea to take one of them in the evening especially if your blood pressure doesn’t dip at night, either.
The effect of the medication can only be reliably assessed if you take it as prescribed by your doctor. A little patience is needed: It might sometimes seem like medication isn’t working if the dose is too low or it hasn’t been used for long enough.
If you decide to stop taking medication for instance due to troubling side effects or if you sometimes forget to take it, you should be honest with your doctor about it. He or she will then be better able to assess how successful the treatment is and what side effects it has. This is important in order to make sure that you are using the right dose and are only taking as much medication as you really need.
What Should I Do If I Have High Blood Pressure
If you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, you and your healthcare provider will talk about your target blood pressure. Your provider may suggest that you:
- Check your own blood pressure regularly with a home blood pressure monitor. These electronic monitors are available at most pharmacies or online.
- Work on controlling anger and managing stress.
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What Do The Diastolic And Systolic Numbers Mean
How is blood pressure measured?
Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff and recorded as two numbers, for example, 120/80 mm Hg . Blood pressure measurements are usually taken at the upper arm over the brachial artery.
- The top, the larger number is called the systolic pressure. This measures the pressure generated when the heart contracts . It reflects the pressure of the blood against arterial walls.
- At the bottom, the smaller number is called the diastolic pressure. This reflects the pressure in the arteries while the heart is filling and resting between heartbeats.
What Do The Numbers Mean
Blood pressure is the force exerted by blood against the walls of your arteries as it flows through your body. It is measured as two numbers, one over the otherfor example, 120 over 80. The measurement is in millimeters of mercury, expressed as mmHg. The systolic number is the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts. The diastolic number is the pressure when the heart rests between contractions. An elevation in either or both of those numbers signals high blood pressure. See chart below for more details.
Importantly, even if your blood pressure is not elevated enough to be considered high, the risk of a heart attack or stroke increases as pressure rises above normal.
|100 or above||Your doctor will prescribe medication in addition to recommending lifestyle changes.|
Source: Adapted from The 2014 Evidence-Based Guidelines for the Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults, a report from the panel members appointed to the eighth Joint National Committee Journal of the American Medical Association Feb. 5, 2014 Vol. 311: 507-520. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hypertension in the Community, A Statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension Journal of Clinical Hypertension Dec. 17, 2013.
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Overviews Of The Classes Of Blood Pressure Medications
Summaries of some of the major types of commonly prescribed cardiovascular medications are provided here.
- For your information and reference, we have included generic names as well as major trade names to help you identify what you may be taking. However, this information does not signify a recommendation or endorsement from the American Heart Association.
- If your prescription medication isnt on this list, remember that your healthcare provider and pharmacist are your best sources of information.
- It’s important to discuss all of the drugs you take with your doctor and understand their desired effects and possible side effects.
- Never stop taking a medication and never change your dose or frequency without first consulting your doctor.
Personal Stories About Taking Medicine For High Blood Pressure
These stories are based on information gathered from health professionals and consumers. They may be helpful as you make important health decisions.
After my doctor told me my blood pressure was too high, she suggested I try to bring it down by changing some of my habits. I ate less salt, lost a little weight, and started a walking program. That made me feel healthier, but it didn’t bring my blood pressure down very much. Now I take two kinds of blood pressure medicine as well as keeping up with my lifestyle changes. Everything is under control.
Terrence, age 59
I just found out I have high blood pressure. I want to try to make some lifestyle changes before I start taking medicine. I know I need to start out by making small changes and sticking with them. I’m going to start by walking 15 minutes 5 days a week and cutting down on salt by looking for other ways to season my food. After 2 weeks of that, I’ll add some more goals and walk a little longer. I really think I can do this.
Magda, age 45
My doctor thinks I might be able to control my blood pressure by losing weight and getting more exercise. I started a diet but I wasn’t sure I’d be able to lose weight. And I worry about having a heart attack because of my family history. So I decided to start taking medicine right away. I’ll also try to eat healthier and start walking.
Paolo, age 51
Hanh, age 64
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