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Why Does Salt Raise Blood Pressure

Is It Safe To Consume Bacon On A Regular Basis

Why Salt Raises Blood Pressure in Some People | Chris Masterjohn Lite #51

According to current NHS recommendations, if you consume more than 90g of red and processed meats per day, you should reduce your intake to 70g per day. This is about two or three bacon rashers or a little more than two slices of roast lamb, beef, or pig . Given the latest research, its advisable to limit your intake of all processed meats to once every couple of weeks. As a result, limiting your bacon consumption to once every couple of weeks is recommended.

Peripheral Sympathetic Innervation And The Consequences Of Increased Sympathetic Drive

Tonic sympathetic drive is the predominant mechanism for maintaining vascular tone, and a block of 1-adrenoceptors in vivo rapidly lowers arterial myocyte , dilates arteries , and reduces BP . Thus augmented SNA should elevate BP directly. This sympathetic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction and elevation of BP must surely come into operation when the central sympathetic drive increases, as in the case of a sudden, short-term rise in CSF . Compensatory mechanisms, including the baroreflex response and endothelium-mediated vasodilation, should, however, counter the tendency for a sustained, large elevation of BP unless they are downregulated , a subject we address below.

The topic of increased SNA usually focuses on augmented norepinephrine release and rapid activation of vasoconstriction the roles of the cotransmitters, ATP and neuropeptide Y , are often ignored. Release of the cotransmitters is greatly influenced by the pattern of SNA and increases with bursts of activity moreover, ATP and NPY both modulate the effects of norepinephrine on smooth muscle . Of particular interest in the present context is the fact that NPY, especially, is a mitogenic agent and growth regulator that may make an important contribution to vascular remodeling .

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How Common Is High Blood Pressure In Europe

In 2015, an estimated 1.13 billion people were living with high blood pressure globally, of which 150 million were living in Europe .4 Although the prevalence of high blood pressure in many European countries has decreased slightly in recent years, current levels are still of great concern. Reducing salt intake remains an important public health strategy to decrease levels further.

As with salt intake, the prevalence of high blood pressure tends to be higher for men than for women . The exact reason for this difference is not fully understood, but higher intakes of salt may be partly to blame.

Figure 2. Prevalence of high blood pressure 140 mmHg OR diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg) in men and women across European countries.4

About Salt Sodium And Potassium

why does salt raise blood pressure
  • Sodium is an essential nutrient necessary for maintenance of plasma volume, acid-base balance, transmission of nerve impulses and normal cell function.
  • Excess sodium is linked to adverse health outcomes, including increased blood pressure.
  • The primary contributors to dietary sodium consumption depend on the cultural context and dietary habits of a population.
  • Sodium is found naturally in a variety of foods, such as milk, meat and shellfish. It is often found in high amounts in processed foods such as breads, processed meat and snack foods, as well as in condiments .
  • Sodium is also contained in sodium glutamate, used as a food additive in many parts of the world.
  • Potassium is an essential nutrient needed for maintenance of total body fluid volume, acid and electrolyte balance, and normal cell function.
  • Potassium is commonly found in a variety of unrefined foods, especially fruits and vegetables.
  • Increased potassium intake reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults.

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How Nacl Raises Blood Pressure: A New Paradigm For The Pathogenesis Of Salt

Departments of Physiology and

Medicine, and

the Center for Heart, Hypertension and Kidney Disease, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and

Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: M. P. Blaustein, Dept. of Physiology, Univ. of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W. Baltimore St., Baltimore, MD, 21201 .

the Hypertension Unit, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Medicine, and

the Center for Heart, Hypertension and Kidney Disease, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and

Departments of Physiology and

the Center for Heart, Hypertension and Kidney Disease, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and

Departments of Physiology and

the Center for Heart, Hypertension and Kidney Disease, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and

Medicine, and

the Center for Heart, Hypertension and Kidney Disease, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and

Departments of Physiology and

the Center for Heart, Hypertension and Kidney Disease, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and

Departments of Physiology and

the Center for Heart, Hypertension and Kidney Disease, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland and

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  • A Fast & Easy Solution For Healthy Blood Pressure

    There are a few important ways for having healthier blood and exercise being the two important factors.

    Unfortunately, they take time and most people are either NOT patient or need faster results, with less effort…This is the exact problem I ran into with my own parents.

    Because of this, I needed to find a simple, easy and fast solution for naturally supporting healthier blood pressure levels in only 30 days, without the use of harmful prescription drugs or following a restrictive diet.

    If this is something you’re also interested in, you can easily copy my parent’s “proven formula”, implement it and start seeing and feeling results within days

    Also Check: Reversing Pulmonary Hypertension

    Sodium And Blood Pressure

    How much salt is too much salt? AHA recommends no more than 2,300 milligrams of salt per day. “This is one leveled teaspoon of salt, and the average American diet contains 2.5 times more salt,” Dr. Bakris says. “That’s a lot of salt being eaten.”

    Most of this salt comes from processed and packaged foods, not the salt shaker.

    “One Chinese-style meal has a tremendous amount of salt 4,000 to 8,000 mg, depending on what you order and if you are salt sensitive, your blood pressure may increase by as much as 40 points within a few hours,” he says.

    All that sodium in your bloodstream attracts more water into your blood vessels, which raises your blood volume. That is what causes your blood pressure to go up. It’s similar to the way pressure increases in a garden hose if you turn up the spigot, the AHA notes.

    “Your kidney has to get rid of that salt, and it takes your kidney 24 to 48 hours to recalibrate,” Dr. Bakris says. “You may find yourself getting up at night to pee often because your blood pressure is elevated from salt and your kidney is trying to lower it by peeing it out.”

    Read more:Signs and Symptoms of Too Much Salt in the Diet

    Sodium Intake And Blood Pressure Values

    How does SALT raise Blood Pressure?

    Available evidence suggests a direct relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure values . Excessive sodium consumption has been shown to produce a significant increase in BP and has been linked with onset of hypertension and its cardiovascular complications . Conversely, reduction in sodium intake not only decreases BP levels and hypertension incidence, but is also associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality . A large meta-analysis showed that modest reduction in salt intake for four or more weeks causes a significant fall in BP in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals, irrespective of sex and ethnic group, and larger reductions in salt intake are linked to larger falls in systolic BP . However, the current health policies have not reached an effective achievement for the reduction of dietary sodium in the population and the positive effects of a reduced sodium intake on BP levels tend to decrease with time, owing to poor dietary compliance.

    In this paper, we have reviewed the evidence regarding the effects of sodium intake on arterial function, and their implication in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We have first addressed the debate on salt-sensitivity, in light of recent evidence, and then discussed the effects of sodium handling on arterial function and structure.

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    Managing Hypertension With Food

    HBP is known as the silent killer, because many do not know they even have it, so monitoring your blood pressure is key, especially if you already have any of the other contributing factors.

    Unfortunately, my family medical history made me more susceptible to high blood pressure.

    Fortunately, I only had to try a few prescription medications, to find the proper one for me.

    I take my medicine religiously at the same time daily. If I do not, I will notice within a couple of hours.

    Salt Tied To Elevated Blood Pressure Even With Healthy Diet

    By Lisa Rapaport, Reuters Health

    5 Min Read

    – People who eat lots of fruits, veggies, and whole grains may still have an increased risk of elevated blood pressure if they consume a lot of salt, a new study suggests.

    Eating high-sodium foods has long been associated with raised blood pressure readings, but some evidence suggests that body weight and other nutrients in the diet may modify or offset the effects of sodium on blood pressure.

    To see how diet might influence the connection between salt and blood pressure, researchers examined data from food surveys completed by 4,680 middle-aged adults, and determined the amount of 80 nutrients in each persons diet.

    With the exception of potassium, none of these nutrients appeared to weaken the connection between eating a high-sodium diet and having higher average blood pressure readings over 24 hours than people who ate the least sodium, researchers report in Hypertension.

    This matters because it indicates that the problem of excess salt intake and its adverse effects on blood pressure cannot be solved by augmenting the diet with other nutrients, said lead study author Dr. Jeremiah Stamler of the Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University in Chicago.

    The solution is reduction in salt intake, Stamler said by email. This is difficult since, as a result of commercial food processing, salt is almost everywhere in the food supply.

    SOURCE: Hypertension, online March 5, 2018.

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    Tips To Reduce Salt Intake

    Most of the salt we consume comes from ready-to-eat convenience foods, as well as foods prepared outside of the home. Here are some tips to help you reduce your salt intake:

  • Avoid adding salt to foods or use reduced-sodium table salts.
  • Even foods that dont taste salty such as breakfast cereals or bread can be high in salt. Always check the nutritional information and choose low salt varieties when possible .
  • Choose unsalted nuts, seeds and other snack foods instead of salted varieties.
  • Use herbs and spices instead of salt to flavour foods.
  • Be conscious of foods eaten outside of the home and ask for less salt where possible.
  • Myth : Pink/black/rock/sea/himalayan Salt Is Better For You Than Other Types Of Salt

    why does salt raise blood pressure

    You might have seen some varieties of salt advertised as having extra health benefits that regular table salt doesnt, like containing minerals that are good for your body. Consumer advocacy group CHOICE say that Australians should be wary of these kinds of health claims, as the minerals found in salts like Himalayan Sea Salt are often present only in very small amounts.

    Himalayan salt, sea salt, rock salt, black salt, pink salt, unicorn salt in the end, its all still salt. Upping your salt intake to try and get the benefits of an advertised mineral might lead you to consume far too much salt, putting yourself at risk of disease.

    If youre looking for a great way to get healthy minerals and other nutrients in your diet, fruits and veggies are a great source of these. Head on over to the Healthier. Happier. Colour Wheel to find out what nutrients are in your favourite fruit and veggies.

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    Myth : If You Had High Blood Pressure Caused By Too Much Salt Youd Be Able To Tell

    More than 30% of Australian adults have high blood pressure, and according to the Heart Foundation, half of them dont even know it.

    Most people with high blood pressure dont display any symptoms, so its important to get your blood pressure checked regularly. If you do have high blood pressure, reducing salt, along with getting regular physical activity, moderating alcohol intake, quitting smoking and reducing stress, might help manage it, reducing the risk of damage to your body.

    You can find out more about blood pressure here.

    Are There Other Ways To Reduce Blood Pressure

    • Cutting down on the amount of salt we eat helps reduce blood pressure. But our whole diet is also important, as is being a healthy body weight, and if drinking alcohol doing so in moderation.
    • An example of a dietary pattern shown to improve blood pressure is the DASH diet. It emphasises a good intake of fruit and vegetables, low fat milk and milk products , choosing wholegrain foods, poultry, fish and nuts and eating less fats, red meat, sweets and sugary drinks. The DASH diet has a higher intake of potassium, calcium, magnesium and fibre. Saturated fat intake is lower than the typical Western diet, and protein intake is higher.

    Our ‘Salt and the heart’ evidence paper recommends we continue to reduce dietary salt intakes, you can read more about our recommendations around salt and the heart in our Sodium Position Statement .

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    The Hypothalamus And Enhanced Sympathetic Drive

    As already noted, a high-salt diet elevates plasma by a few millimolar, but the rise is not different in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant or hypertensive and normotensive subjects. A high-salt diet also elevates CSF in salt-sensitive Dahl S rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats but not in their salt-resistant or normotensive counterparts . The rise in CSF stimulates the hypothalamic circumventricular organs, such as the subfornical organ , and activates a central sympathoexcitatory pathway. This induces a rapid, short-term, ANG II-mediated increase in peripheral SNA and elevation of BP that is prevented by central ANG-II type-1 receptor blockade .

    Fig. 3.Diagram of the proposed hypothalamic Na+-aldosterone-EO-angiotensin II neuromodulatory pathway by which elevated CSF increases central sympathoexcitatory pathways. AT1R, ANG II type-1 receptor ENaC, benzamil-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel MR, mineralocorticoid receptor OVLT, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis PVN, paraventricular nucleus SON, supraoptic nucleus SFO, subfornical organ. The PVN and SON are hypothalamic nuclei the OVLT and SFO are circumventricular organs that, together with the median preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, are located anteroventral to the third ventricle, in the so-called AV3V region. Revised from Leenen .

    How Blood Pressure Changes

    Does salt raise blood pressure?High Blood Pressure

    Your body controls the pressure in your arteries using a complex system of regulators including your heart, kidneys, enzymes, hormones, and nervous system.

    Your blood pressure is always adjusting, based on your activity level, stress level, time of day, and even the position of your body. Lifestyle factors such as alcohol, caffeine, food, tobacco , and stress can all change your blood pressure.

    There are several categories of high blood pressure:

    • Normal
    • High blood pressure stage 1
    • Hypertension stage 2
    • Hypertensive crisis

    If either of the numbers in your blood pressure measurement is higher than normal, you should work on reducing your blood pressure through lifestyle changes and should seek the care of a physician.

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    Are Speciality Salts Healthier

    No. The marketing of specialty salts, such as Himalayan rock salt or hand-harvested sea salt, can make them sound healthy. They are not and for the sake of your heart, it is recommended to cut back on all salt, regardless of type. Salt is also known as sodium chloride. It’s the sodium in salt that can raise your blood pressure. It doesn’t matter how expensive salt is, where it is from, or whether it comes in grains, crystals or flakes – it still contains sodium.

    Potassium As Important As Sodium

    The importance of dietary potassium is also underlined in this study. The team found that individuals with the lowest blood pressure were those who had the highest intake of sodium and potassium. Conversely, those with the highest blood pressure had the lowest intake of sodium and potassium.

    Moore says: This study and others point to the importance of higher potassium intakes, in particular, on blood pressure and probably cardiovascular outcomes as well.

    Similar effects were also seen when magnesium and calcium intakes were analysed higher levels were linked to lower blood pressure, and vice versa.

    The authors conclude that:

    These long-term data from the Framingham Study provide no support for lowering sodium intakes among healthy adults to below 2.3 grams per day as recommended. This study does support the finding of a clear inverse association between potassium, magnesium, and calcium and blood pressure change over time.

    Moore wants her study to play a part in shifting dietary decisions throughout the U.S. She says: I hope that this research will help refocus the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans on the importance of increasing intakes of foods rich in potassium, calcium, and magnesium for the purpose of maintaining a healthy blood pressure.

    As more studies conclude that sodiums role in hypertension is less vital than once thought, dietary recommendations are sure to change in line with the findings. This changing field of nutrition science is one to watch.

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