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Explain How Hypertension Heart Disease And Stroke Are Related

Healthy Eating And Cardiovascular Disease Risk

Hypertension- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Eating a variety of foods is good for our health and can help reduce the risk of disease, including heart disease. This helps maintain a healthy and interesting diet and provides a range of different nutrients to the body.

To reduce your heart disease risk, follow these heart healthy eating patterns recommended by the Heart Foundation:

  • Make your bones and muscles stronger.
  • Make you feel more confident, happy and relaxed.
  • Help you to sleep better.

If you have had a heart attack, regular physical activity will help you to recover more quickly. If you have diabetes, it will also help you to manage your blood-glucose levels.

Physical activity doesnât have to be strenuous. Moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, is great for your health. It is recommended that you do 30â45 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, if not all, days of the week. You can do this in smaller bouts, such as three 10-minute walks, if it is easier.

Stroke And High Blood Pressure

Stroke is a leading cause of death and severe, long-term disability. Most people whove had a first stroke also had high blood pressure .

High blood pressure damages arteries throughout the body, creating conditions where they can burst or clog more easily. Weakened arteries in the brain, resulting from high blood pressure, put you at a much higher risk for stroke which is why managing high blood pressure is critical to reduce your chance of having a stroke.

How Does High Blood Pressure Increase Your Risk Of Heart Disease

High blood pressure makes it harder for your cardiovascular system to circulate blood throughout your body.

Over time, the excess force from high blood pressure causes pressure and damage to the walls of the blood vessels and makes them sticky. Cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the bloodstream can stick and harden to form plaque. The vessels themselves also stiffen.

This process is called atherosclerosis. It causes the arteries to narrow. When this happens, the force of the blood in your arteries increases and your heart has to work harder to circulate blood effectively throughout your body.

Atherosclerosis also increases the risk that a blood clot will form and block the flow of blood to the heart. When this happens, the heart muscle cannot get the oxygen it needs to keep pumping.

A heart attack, or myocardial infarction, occurs when the heart is damaged as a result of a blockage in the arteries.

Heart attack symptoms

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How Is Blood Pressure Measured

Blood pressure is measured in two ways:

  • Systolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries, as the heart pumps blood out to the body.
  • Diastolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries between heart beats.
  • On blood pressure charts, the top number refers to the systolic pressure, while the number underneath refers to the diastolic pressure.

    Treatment Of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    The Relationship between Hypertension and Cardio Vascular ...

    Certain classes of antihypertensivesACE inhibitors, beta blockers, and nondihydropyridine calcium channel blockershave been shown to improve echocardiographic parameters in symptomatic and asymptomatic diastolic dysfunction and the symptomatology of heart failure. Candesartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker , has been shown to decrease hospitalization in patients with diastolic heart failure.

    Use diuretics and nitrates with caution in patients with heart failure due to diastolic dysfunction. These drugs may cause severe hypotension by inappropriately decreasing the preload, which is required for adequate LV filling pressures. If diuretics are indicated, delicate titration is necessary. Hydralazine has been shown to cause severe hypotension in patients with heart failure due to diastolic dysfunction.

    By increasing the intracellular calcium level, digoxin can worsen LV stiffness. However, a large, randomized trial has not shown any increase in mortality rate.

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    Explain How Hypertension Heart Disease And Stroke Are Related

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    Hypertension, heart disease, and stoke are related because they all have to do with the heart. Hypertension is when you have high blood levels, heart disease is when your heart doesn’t work properly, and stoke is when the heart beats hyperactively or the opposite.

    How Does High Blood Pressure Increase Your Risk Of A Stroke

    As described above, hypertension damages and weakens your blood vessels. This includes blood vessels that deliver oxygen to parts of your brain.

    During a hemorrhagic stroke, a weak blood vessel ruptures. As a result, part of the brain is deprived of oxygen. If it goes without oxygen for too long, the affected part of the brain can die.

    High blood pressure also increases the risk that a blood clot will develop in the brain and block the flow of blood. When the blood vessels are clogged with plaque, the risk of this happening is even higher.

    This is called an ischemic stroke. As with a hemorrhagic stroke, if the affected part of the brain doesnt get the oxygen it needs, it could die.

    Both types of strokes can affect key functions, such as your ability to speak, move, and remember.

    Stroke symptoms

    If youve been diagnosed with elevated or high blood pressure, your doctor will help you understand the steps you need to take to lower your blood pressure.

    This might include monitoring your blood pressure at home, changing your day-to-day habits, and taking medication.

    You can get started right away with the following lifestyle changes:

    • Make time for physical activity. Choose an activity that you enjoy, such as walks with a friend, yoga, or a water aerobics class. Try to find something that youre more likely to stick with and will do on a regular basis.
    • Lose weight or maintain a moderate weight. If youre overweight,

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    Data Synthesis And Analysis

    We used the STATA version 15.0 software package to conduct random effects meta-analysis by using the inverse variance method for pooling log relative risks. Random effects was used because the studies were conducted over a wide range of settings in different populations. This approach required that heterogeneity be considered when making the pooled effect estimate. If possible, we chose to pool the risk estimates from primary studies, and when these data were not available, raw data were used to calculate unadjusted risk estimates. Pooled relative risks were expressed with 95% confidence intervals. The absolute risk difference was calculated by using the formula , where RR indicates pooled relative risks and I0 is the incidence of cardiovascular events per 1000 person years among young adults with optimal blood pressure.31

    In the dose-response analysis, we used restricted cubic splines to assess the pooled dose-response relation between blood pressure and individual outcomes. Nonlinear models were fitted and the results presented with 95% confidence intervals.34 We used mean values of the systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure reported by the original studies, or calculated the average level by estimating the midpoint in each category. To enable the total person years of observation to be calculated, we included data from reports that specified total person time of follow-up, or sample size and median follow-up per person.

    Lower Your Blood Pressure And Decrease Your Risks

    Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Blood Pressure

    Unfortunately, it can be difficult to spot the early signs of hypertension since there are almost no visible symptoms. While certain habits or lifestyle patterns may indicate that someone is at risk for the development of heart complications, there is no single symptom that patients can be on the lookout for.

    However, there are specific ways to lower blood pressure and invest in a healthier lifestyle to reduce the risk of a stroke or heart failure. Dr. Gura recommends that you get regular checkups to ensure that your blood pressure levels are stable. Knowing how hypertension, heart disease, and stroke are related is the key first step in lowering your risks.

    For more information, contact us online or give us a call at 550-6240 to set an appointment.

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    Cholesterol Management Clinical Practice Guidelines

    The recommendations on management of blood cholesterol were released in November 2018 by the American College of Cardiology , American Heart Association , and multiple other medical societies.

    The guideline’s top 10 key recommendations for reducing the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease through cholesterol management are summarized below.

    Emphasize a heart-healthy lifestyle across the life course of all individuals.

    In patients with clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease , reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with high-intensity statin therapy or the maximally tolerated statin therapy.

    In individuals with very high-risk ASCVD, use an LDL-C threshold of 70 mg/dL to consider the addition of nonstatins to statin therapy.

    In patients with severe primary hypercholesterolemia , without calculating the 10-year ASCVD risk, begin high-intensity statin therapy.

    In patients 40 to 75 years of age with diabetes mellitus and an LDL-C level of 70 mg/dL: Start moderate-intensity statin therapy without calculating their 10-year ASCVD risk.

    In patients aged 40 to 75 years evaluated for primary ASCVD prevention: Have a clinicianpatient risk discussion before starting statin therapy.

    In nondiabetic patients aged 40 to 75 years and with the following characteristics:

  • Kannel WB, Cobb J. Left ventricular hypertrophy and mortality–results from the Framingham Study. Cardiology. 1992. 81:291-8. .

  • Tables

    What Causes High Blood Pressure

    High blood pressure usually develops over time. It can happen because of unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as not getting enough regular physical activity. Certain health conditions, such as diabetes and having obesity, can also increase the risk for developing high blood pressure. High blood pressure can also happen during pregnancy.

    You can manage your blood pressure to lower your risk for serious health problems that may affect your heart, brain, kidneys, and eyes.

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    Evidence Linking Osa To Htn

    Animal models of OSA have provided strong evidence for a causal relationship of OSA in the development of HTN. Studies in humans have demonstrated that patients with OSA have an increased BP and a higher incidence of HTN. This relationship appears to be the strongest in patients who report excessive daytime somnolence which may underscore the significance of sleep architecture disruption in abnormal BP control. Conversely, patients with essential HTN are more likely to suffer from sleep-disordered breathing, and this association is particularly evident in hypertensive patients who are resistant to conventional BP-lowering pharmacotherapy. Up to 84% of subjects with refractory HTN may have previously undiagnosed OSA.

    Figure 2. Odds ratios for hypertension after four years observation according to API. Odds adjusted for baseline hypertension status, non-modifiable risk factors, habitus, and weekly alcohol and cigarette use. Peppard PE et al. The New England Journal of Medicine.

    Figure 3. Mean ambulatory BP profile before and after treatment. Bars are SEs for every 30-min. period, synchronized to wake and sleep times. Pepperell JCT et al. Lancet 2002 with permission.

    Types Of Cardiovascular Disease

    Explain How Hypertension Heart Disease And Stroke Related ...

    Cardiovascular disease covers a number of conditions that are related to lifestyle, including:

    • coronary heart disease either angina or heart attack
    • stroke either caused by a blockage with a blood clot or the rupturing of a blood vessel and bleeding
    • peripheral vascular disease obstruction of the large blood vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs.

    Cardiovascular disease conditions that are not related to lifestyle, include:

    • acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease caused by an untreated infection with group A streptococcus bacteria
    • congenital heart disease inherited conditions that affect the structure of the heart.

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    Family History And Genetics

    High blood pressure often runs in families. Much of the understanding of the body systems involved in high blood pressure has come from genetic studies. Many different genes are linked to a small increase in the risk of developing high blood pressure. Research suggests that certain DNA changes as an unborn baby grows in the womb may also lead to high blood pressure later in life.

    Some people have a high sensitivity to salt in their diet. This can also run in families.

    What Are Common Symptoms Of Hypertension

    Hypertension is called a “silent killer”. Most people with hypertension are unaware of the problem because it may have no warning signs or symptoms. For this reason, it is essential that blood pressure is measured regularly.

    When symptoms do occur, they can include early morning headaches, nosebleeds, irregular heart rhythms, vision changes, and buzzing in the ears. Severe hypertension can cause fatigue, nausea, vomiting, confusion, anxiety, chest pain, and muscle tremors.

    The only way to detect hypertension is to have a health professional measure blood pressure. Having blood pressure measured is quick and painless. Although individuals can measure their own blood pressure using automated devices, an evaluation by a health professional is important for assessment of risk and associated conditions.

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    Being Overweight Or Obese

    Being overweight or obese increases your risk of developing diabetes and high blood pressure, both of which are risk factors for CVD.

    You’re at an increased risk of CVD if:

    Read more about obesity.

    Eating More Fruits And Vegetables And Less Fat

    What to Know About New Hypertension Guidelines in Chronic Kidney Disease

    People who have high blood pressure or people at high risk for developing high blood pressure should reduce their intake of saturated fats in favor of unsaturated forms.

    that those with high blood pressure prioritize more heart-healthy foods, such as:

    • whole grain, high fiber foods
    • a variety of fruits and vegetables
    • pulses, such as chickpeas, beans, and lentils
    • nuts
    • fish rich in omega-3 twice per week
    • nontropical vegetable oils, such as olive oil
    • skinless poultry and fish
    • low fat dairy products

    If a person has high blood pressure or wished to maintain moderate blood pressure, it is important to avoid trans fats, hydrogenated vegetable oils, animal fats, and processed fast foods when creating a diet plan.

    However, omega-3 fatty acids, such as those in oily fish and olive oil, have protective effects on the heart. However, these are still fats. While they are typically healthful, people with a risk of hypertension should still include them in their total fat intake.

    contribute to hypertension. A fall in blood pressure usually follows weight loss, as the heart does not have to work so hard to pump blood around the body.

    A balanced diet with a calorie intake that matches the individuals size, sex, and activity level will help.

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    Maintain A Healthy Weight

    If you’re overweight or obese, a combination of regular exercise and a healthy diet can help you lose weight. Aim to get your BMI below 25.

    If you’re struggling to lose weight, your GP or practice nurse can help you come up with a weight loss plan and recommend services in your area.

    Read more about losing weight and how your GP can help.

    What Can I Do To Prevent Or Manage High Blood Pressure

    Many people with high blood pressure can lower their blood pressure into a healthy range or keep their numbers in a healthy range by making lifestyle changes. Talk with your health care team about

    • Getting at least 150 minutes of physical activity each week
    • Not smoking
    • Managing stress

    Learn more about ways to manage and prevent high blood pressure.

    In addition to making positive lifestyle changes, some people with high blood pressure need to take medicine to manage their blood pressure. Learn more about medicines for high blood pressure.

    Talk with your health care team right away if you think you have high blood pressure or if youve been told you have high blood pressure but do not have it under control.

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    What Are The Risk Factors For Cardiovascular Disease

    The most important behavioural risk factors of heart disease and stroke are unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use and harmful use of alcohol. The effects of behavioural risk factors may show up in individuals as raised blood pressure, raised blood glucose, raised blood lipids, and overweight and obesity. These intermediate risks factors can be measured in primary care facilities and indicate an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, heart failure and other complications.

    Cessation of tobacco use, reduction of salt in the diet, eating more fruit and vegetables, regular physical activity and avoiding harmful use of alcohol have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Health policies that create conducive environments for making healthy choices affordable and available are essential for motivating people to adopt and sustain healthy behaviours.

    There are also a number of underlying determinants of CVDs. These are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change globalization, urbanization and population ageing. Other determinants of CVDs include poverty, stress and hereditary factors.

    In addition, drug treatment of hypertension, diabetes and high blood lipids are necessary to reduce cardiovascular risk and prevent heart attacks and strokes among people with these conditions.

    Warning Signs And Symptoms Of Heart Disease

    Leading Killer Heart Diseases

    For many people, high blood pressure happens and does not cause symptoms. High blood pressure is often dubbed “the silent killer” because it can cause serious health problems before you notice and have a chance to make changes that could lower it and reduce your risk of complications.

    This process happens over time. Any symptoms that you may have can be subtle and might even be dismissed as being related to other health conditions.

    As your high blood pressure continues, gets worse, and starts to lead to complications in other parts of your body, you will start to notice more symptoms as more damage occursparticularly to your heart.

    Symptoms that can be warning signs of heart disease include:

    • Fatigue
    • Have a sudden and intense headache

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