What To Do During A Seizure
Most of the time a seizure lasts less than 3 minutes, so by the time an emergency medication is ready to be given, the seizure is over. The most important thing during a seizure is for you to stay calm and protect the person having a seizure.
The following guidelines apply to tonic-clonic seizures or complex partial seizures.
Cushion the head. Banging the head against a hard surface during a seizure may lead to head trauma. Use any available soft object, and, if needed, use your foot. Loosen tight neckwear to ease breathing. Turn the person onto his/her side. This position helps the tongue fall to the side of the mouth, leaving the airway clear for normal breathing. Do not insert any object into the person’s mouth. An object in the mouth will not prevent tongue biting, nor will a person swallow his/her tongue, as some people think. In fact, if an object is placed into the mouth, you may cause more harm by breaking teeth or losing the object in the throat, causing choking. Do not restrain a person during a seizure unless there is a danger. They may become aggressive if you do so. Allow them to do what they want to do. Talk to them in a soft voice to reassure them.
Afterward, tell the person that he/she has had a seizure and make sure theyre breathing normally. Check the person’s awareness by asking a few questions, such as, “Where are you?” or “What is the day today?” If a tonic-clonic seizure has occurred, inform the doctor.
Interictal Alterations Of Blood Pressure And Baroreflex In Epilepsy
According to previous surveys, the prevalence of arterial hypertension is similar in PwE as compared to the general population . This is in line with smaller scope studies reporting similar interictal BP values in people with FBTCS and healthy controls as well as in individuals with epilepsy who later died of SUDEP and two matched control groups with and without epilepsy . The authors of the latter study found, however, that DAP tended to be higher in SUDEP patients, suggesting that the sympathetic tone is elevated in this patient group . In fact, subtle signs of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction such as altered HR variability at rest or in response to orthostasis and other autonomic tests are common in PwE, possibly augmented by anti-seizure drugs such as carbamazepine . For instance, attenuated HRV, which is an established risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, is significantly decreased in PwE, indicating a shift of autonomic function toward a predominant sympathetic activity and lower vagal activity. This sympathovagal imbalance may be further reinforced due to the effect of anti-seizure drugs and during phases of sleep related apnea, both in people with focal and generalized epilepsy syndromes .
Is Vitamin B12 Good For The Nervous System
It is believed that people may use vitamin B12 supplements regularly and may have better functioning in older age due to their ability to absorb food. Mildly low vitamin B12 deficiency of older people has no effect on their ability to speak their minds and function with confidence after a years treatment.
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How Do You Help Someone Who Is Having A Seizure
Clear the area around a person whos having a seizure to prevent possible injury. If possible, place them on their side and provide cushioning for their head.
Stay with the person. Call 911 or local emergency services as soon as possible if any of these apply:
- The seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes.
- The person doesnt wake up after the seizure.
- The person is experiencing repeat seizures.
- The seizure occurs in someone who is pregnant.
- The seizure occurs in someone who has never had a seizure before.
Its important to remain calm. While theres no way to stop a seizure once its begun, you can provide help. The recommends the following:
- Stay with the person having the seizure until it ends, or until they are fully awake again.
- Check to see whether the person is wearing a medical bracelet.
- If the person is wearing glasses or anything around their neck, remove them if possible.
- If the person having the seizure is standing, you can prevent them from falling or injuring themselves by holding them in a hug or gently guiding them to the floor.
- If the person having the seizure is on the ground, try to position them on their side so that saliva or vomit leaks out of their mouth instead of down their windpipe.
- If possible, place something soft under their head.
- Do not try to hold the person down while theyre having a seizure.
- Do not put anything in the persons mouth.
Seizure From Low Sodium Levels
Seizures, or convulsions, are the physical manifestations of abnormal electrical activity within the brain. Neurons, the cells that make up the brain and the nervous system, communicate with each other through electrical signals. When these signals misfire, they can cause a seizure. The manifestations of seizures include changes in behavior, abnormal movements or sensations, and changes in mental status, including confusion or loss of consciousness. One of the causes of seizures is low blood sodium levels.
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Treatment For Seizures In Dogs
The treatment for your dogs seizures will depend in part on the underlying cause. For example, the treatment for a suspected case of toxicity will differ from the treatment for a traumatic brain injury or metabolic disorder.
In some cases, addressing the underlying cause will halt seizure activity. In others, medication will be required to control your dogs seizures. Typically, veterinarians recommend treating seizures if they occur more frequently than every six to eight weeks, if multiple seizures rapidly follow one another , or if multiple seizures take place within 24 hours.
The most common medications available for treating seizures in dogs are levetiracetam , phenobarbital and potassium bromide. Levetiracetam is often the first drug recommended because of its minimal side effects. Phenobarbital may also be the first drug recommended, although it can take up to two weeks to take effect. Potassium bromide can be used alone or with levetiracetam and/or phenobarbital. Gabapentin is occasionally used to treat seizures but is now more often used as a pain medication.
If these drugs lead to serious side effects or are ineffective on their own, veterinarians may also prescribe zonisamide, and in cases of severe seizures while the dog is in the hospital, intravenous diazepam . Diazepam can also be used as a rectal suppository at home to control severe breakthrough seizures.
What Does A Typical Seizure Look Like
A dog with a generalized seizure often begins showing abnormal behaviors prior to the actual seizure. Dogs may hide, whine, act anxious, tremble, or salivate for anywhere from several seconds to several hours prior to a seizure. This period of time is called the pre-ictal phase, or aura.
In a generalized, or tonic-clonic seizure, the dog will typically be seen to suddenly fall on his side. The legs will first become stiff, and this stiffening is often followed by rhythmic/jerky paddling motions. The head is often held back, with the neck extended. Dogs may vocalize, will often have repeated chewing or chomping motions of the jaw, and often will salivate excessively. Typically, dogs will also urinate or defecate during seizures. Seizures typically last approximately one to two minutes, although prolonged seizures can occur and require treatment.
Once the seizure has ended, dogs will have a prolonged post-ictal recovery period. This period may last up to 24 hours, depending on the individual dog. During the post-ictal period, dogs are typically confused and disoriented. They may be observed to pace and wander aimlessly, while some dogs may show further signs such as blindness, increased thirst, and increased urination.
Can A Drop In Blood Pressure Trigger A Seizure
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Seizures Not Caused By Epilepsy
About 8 to 10 percent of people will have a seizure during their lifetime, but that doesnt mean they have epilepsy. Many of those people never have another seizure.
One study followed people who had experienced a seizure over an average of eight years. Among them, 33 percent had a second seizure within four years, and the remaining people were seizure-free for the rest of the study. Of those who had a second seizure, there was about a 73 percent chance of a third seizure within those four years.
Many physical and psychological issues can lead to seizures. Additionally, the causes of some seizures are never identified.
People are not usually diagnosed with epilepsy after just one seizure, and they are not usually prescribed antiseizure drugs.
Are Seizures Painful For Dogs
No, seizures are not painful for dogs. Although many seizures look violent, the dog is not being harmed. The greatest danger is if they fall over or knock something over onto themselves while seizing. Dogs may become panicked or confused after a seizure because they can’t fully understand what just happened to them.
Are B12 Deficiency Neurological Symptoms Reversible
Donald Hensrud, director of the Mayo Clinics Healthy Living Program, said a deficient supply of vitamin B12 will cause neurological and psychiatric disorders that progress if left unattended. It can go on to cause irreversible damage if left unattended either. Getting rid of it will probably be quite easy through Vitamin pills or injections.
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Can Low Potassium Cause Seizures
Potassium is a mineral your body uses for purposes that include maintenance of your normal heart function and the contraction of both your voluntary and involuntary muscles. If you don’t get enough of this mineral, you can develop a low-potassium disorder called hypokalemia. While hypokalemia can trigger the onset of a variety of serious symptoms, it does not cause seizures.
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Do Medical Studies Prove That Co2 Can Cause Seizures To Disappear
Who were among the first doctors who probably knew the cause of epilepsy? The first medical study that proved the beneficial effects of CO2-enriched air was published over 80 years ago by the Journal of Clinical Investigations .
The result was replicated in the 1956 article published in Science, as is clearly indicated in the title Inhibition of audiogenic seizures by carbon dioxide . In both studies, inhalation of CO2-rich air reduced the duration and severity of seizures due to the known effects of carbon dioxide on nerve and muscle cells. More recently, in 2006, Finnish scientists, after studying febrile seizures in rat pups, stated that Suppressing alkalosis with 5% ambient CO2 abolished seizures within 20 s .
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What Seizures Causes Low Brain Co2 And Oxygen Levels And Epilepsy
What is the seizures causes on a cell level? During a seizure, there is a spontaneous temporary intensification of electrical signals or electrical disturbances that result in abnormal behavior , strange emotions, or even loss of consciousness. An epileptic seizure is a medical condition or a brain disorder that takes place when clusters of neurons in the electrical system of the brain generate abnormally high numbers of spontaneous and asynchronous electrical discharges. The threshold of excitability or the seizure threshold becomes too low.
Note that there are numerous environmental and lifestyle factors, including stress, overeating, infection, fever, high and low blood sugar , marijuana and alcohol withdrawal, as well as genetic factors that predetermine individual variations in relation to susceptibility of certain people to these secondary causes of epilepsy and seizures. However, due to several pathological effects, changes in cerebral CO2 and O2 remain the key factors in the cause of epilepsy and seizures.
Blood Pressure During Focal Seizures
In our recent study with continuous non-invasive BP recordings in 37 patients with focal epilepsy undergoing video-EEG monitoring, MAP, SAP, and DAP increased by 2030% on average during 35 FS and returned to baseline within 10 min after seizures cessation . Peri-ictal alterations of BP had a similar time course as the concomitant increase in HR and did not depend on oxygen saturation. FS with impaired awareness showed a stronger increase in BP than those without impaired awareness . Notably, peri-ictal BP modulation was stereotypic in those patients with recordings of more than one seizure of the same type. The most frequent pattern was a concomitant increase of BP and HR, which is in line with previously published case reports . In some patients with FS, however, BP decreased whilst HR increased . Jaychandran and colleagues also found, on average, a seizure-related increase in BP in 42 patients with 57 FS . They reported that ictal hypertension was observed in 26.3% of the patients, whereas ictal hypotension occurred in 8.7%.
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Find Ways To Maintain Your Current Lifestyle
Continue your usual activities if possible, and find ways to work around your epilepsy so you can maintain your lifestyle.
For instance, if youre no longer allowed to drive because you have seizures, you may decide to move to an area thats walkable or has good public transportation, or use ride-share services so you can still get around.
Making safety modifications to your place of residence can reduce the risk of injury. This can include covering the corners of low objects, not locking the bathroom door when using it, and using guards on radiators and heaters.
How Are Seizures Treated
The goal of treatment is to control, stop, or reduce how often seizures occur. Treatment is most often done with medicine. There are many types of medicines used to treat epilepsy. Your healthcare provider will need to identify the type of seizure you are having. Medicines are selected based on the type of seizure, age of the person, side effects, cost, and ease of use. Medicines used at home are usually taken by mouth as capsules, tablets, sprinkles, or syrup. Some medicines can be given into the rectum. If you are in the hospital with seizures, medicine may be given by injection or intravenously by vein .
It is important to take your medicine on time and as prescribed by your doctor. Peoples bodies react to medicine differently so your schedule and dosage may need to be adjusted for the best seizure control. All medicines can have side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider about possible side effects. While you are taking medicine, you may need tests to see how well the medicine is working. You may have:
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Seizures Due To Hypoglycemia
Seizures in the setting of hypoglycemia are well described. The brain needs sugar to function and when the blood sugar falls too low, one of the things that can happen is that the patient may have a seizure . There is no one level of blood sugar below which one has a seizure . Let me explain that with an example. Lets assume you are a diabetic and you take your insulin shot but for once forget to take a meal . You have a convulsion while at work and are taken to the nearest ER. There your blood sugar at the time of presentation is recorded to be 60 mg/dl. There might be another similar patient whose blood sugar falls to 52mg/dl yet he does not have a convulsion. So there is no set limit below which the brain shall have a seizure but speaking in broader terms usually the brain does not tolerate blood sugar below 60mg/dl and below 40 mg/dl most patients shall be symptomatic . The good news though is that seizures due to hypoglycemia are readily treatable. In the ER we load the patient with glucose . The blood sugar quickly rises and the seizures stop. Patients who suffer from hypoglycemic seizures do not need to be on an anti-epileptic drug. These patients do not have epilepsy. If their blood sugar does not fall down again, they will not have another seizure. Rather a meticulous search should bContinue reading > >
Continue Learning About Epilepsy & Seizures Causes
Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.
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How Are Seizures Treated In A Child
The goal of treatment is to control, stop, or reduce how often seizures occur. Treatment is most often done with medicine. Many types of medicines are used to treat seizures and epilepsy. Your childs healthcare provider will need to identify the type of seizure your child is having. Medicines are selected based on the type of seizure, age of the child, side effects, cost, and ease of use. Medicines used at home are usually taken by mouth as capsules, tablets, sprinkles, or syrup. Some medicines can be given into the rectum or in the nose. If your child is in the hospital with seizures, medicine may be given by injection or intravenously by vein .
It is important to give your child medicine on time and as prescribed. The dose may need to be adjusted for the best seizure control. All medicines can have side effects. Talk with your childs healthcare provider about possible side effects. If your child has side effects, talk to the healthcare provider. Do not stop giving medicine to your child. This can cause more or worse seizures.
While your child is taking medicine, he or she may need tests to see how well the medicine is working. Your child may have:
Your child may not need medicine for life. Some children are taken off medicine if they have had no seizures for 1 to 2 years. This will be determined by your child’s healthcare provider.