Red And Processed Meat Linked To Increased Risk Of Heart Disease Oxford Study Shows
Largest review of all large-scale studies to date finds red and processed meat increase the risk of heart disease.
Globally coronary heart diseases claim nearly nine million lives each year1, the largest of any disease, and present a huge burden to health systems. Until now, it has been unclear whether eating meat increases the risk of heart disease, and if this varies for different kinds of meat.
Researchers at the University of Oxfords Nuffield Department of Population Health have conducted the largest systematic review of the prospective evidence to date, including thirteen cohort studies involving over 1.4 million people. The study participants completed detailed dietary assessments, and their health was tracked for up to 30 years. The results are published today in Critical reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.
Overall, the evidence from the analysis indicated that:
- Each 50 g/day higher intake of processed meat increased the risk of coronary heart disease by 18%.
- Each 50 g/day higher intake of unprocessed red meat increased the risk of coronary heart disease by 9%.
- There was no clear link between eating poultry and an increased risk of coronary heart disease.
Previous work from the same research team has also indicated that even moderate intakes of red and processed meat are associated with increased risk of bowel cancer2.
Does Red Meat Raise Blood Pressure
The USDA includes beef, veal, lamb and pork in its definition of red meat. Not all red meats look precisely red in color, but all do have a deeper color, and this color is determined by the amount of a protein called myoglobin that’s present in the meat, according to the USDA.
But if you love red meat and are worried about your blood pressure, you’ll be happy to know that research doesn’t prove a negative association for all cuts of red meat.
A November 2016 meta-analysis in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at the inconsistencies in studies on the observational links between red meat consumption and heart disease and concluded that eating one-half serving or more of red meat a day does not affect blood pressure.
An April 2019 meta-analysis of 36 studies involving a total of 1,803 participants in Circulation supports these findings. There was no remarkable difference between diets with red meat and all other diets regarding the effect on blood pressure . Plant-protein diets specifically showed more of an edge over red meat diets when it came to healthier changes in blood lipids and lipoproteins.
Poultry Fish And Other Proteins
The best choices of animal proteins are white meat chicken and turkey and fish, Hutlin says. Remove the skin from chicken and turkey to reduce its fat content. Boneless, skinless chicken breasts and turkey cutlets are the leanest poultry choices, the USDA says.
Fish is a heart-healthy food, Zumpano says. The best fish are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which your body can’t make but have been shown to lower risk of heart disease and stroke, according to the AHA. While limiting your intake of red meat, you should eat fish at least twice a week, the AHA says. Among the best choices: salmon, mackerel, herring, lake trout, sardines and albacore tuna. These fish are high in fat, but it’s a heart-healthy fat.
There are many protein-rich options that are higher in fiber and antioxidants than animal proteins, Hutlin says. “Choose beans and legumes, nuts and seeds, tofu, tempeh, edamame and soy milk, and even protein-rich grains like quinoa, as your primary protein sources,” she says. “This type of dietary pattern is linked to better blood pressure results.”
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What Are The Foods To Avoid For High Blood Pressure
How Diet Affects Blood Pressure
Your food choices can have a significant impact on your blood pressure in positive and negative ways.
Eating a healthy diet rich in vegetables, fruit, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes, fish, lean meats, and low-fat dairy can help manage blood pressure.
On the other hand, eating a lot of red meat, fried foods, salt, and added sugars can contribute to high blood pressure.
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Fast Food French Fries
Seemly, a lot of fast food restaurants are frying their fries in the trans fat-free oil. Certainly, French fries still though they can be fried in the trans fat-free oil are rich in sodium and fat. A medium serving of fries provides about 270 milligrams of sodium and around 19 grams of fat making them extremely harmful even in small amounts.
Eating Grilled Or Well
By Megan Brooks, Reuters Health
4 Min Read
NEW YORK – Eating beef, chicken or fish grilled or well-done is associated with a higher risk of high blood pressure, new research suggests.
Among individuals who consume red meat, chicken, or fish regularly, our findings imply that avoiding the use of open-flame and/or high-temperature cooking methods, including grilling/barbecuing, broiling, and roasting, may help reduce hypertension risk, Dr. Gang Liu of the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health in Boston told Reuters Health by email.
Although some studies have suggested that higher intake of red meat, especially processed red meat, is associated with higher risk of hypertension, the associations of chicken or fish intake with hypertension risk remain inconsistent, he explained. These previous studies did not take into account one important factor – different meat cooking methods.
Dr. Liu presented the new findings at an American Heart Association meeting in New Orleans last week.
He and his colleagues analyzed cooking methods and the development of hypertension in adults who regularly ate beef, poultry or fish and were participating in three long-term studies: 32,925 women in the Nurses Health Study, 53,852 women in the Nurses Health Study II, and 17,104 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study.
The risk of hypertension was 15 percent higher in those who preferred their food well done, compared with those who preferred rarer meats.
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List Of Foods That Cause High Blood Pressure: 22 Worst Foods
The risk of hypertension or high blood pressure, is associated with lack of exercise and weight gain as well. Habits like eating salty foods and smoking can increase blood pressure. Everything which you ingest may either cause blood pressure to be high or help it. This is due to the sodium retention. As we know, sodium retention is a major primary factor of hypertension. Therefore, with hypertension you want to have one diet low in fat and sodium. In this article, VKool.com will show you 22 worst foods on the list of foods that cause high blood pressure. The writing collected a list of foods that cause high blood pressure from reliable sources. However, it is not intended to give medical advice and it is solely for the informational purpose. Keep reading this writing to learn these 22 foods that cause high blood pressure in more detail!
Does Red Meat Really Cause High Cholesterol
September 30, 2017 by dean collins
Red meat receives a bad wrap for causing high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease, and for creating joint pain and inflammation in the body. And I forgot, its bad for the environment. But is this really true? This is the first article in a series on red meat where we dispel the common myths of red meat and discuss the benefits of eating red meat.
When I was going to college taking nutrition courses in the 1990s we were taught that eating red meat, because of its high saturated fat content, clogs up your arteries and creates inflammation . For almost two decades I had little red meat in my diet in favour of what was believed to be healthier white meat and fish for my source of protein. Eggs and bacon for breakfast were a rare treat. Cereal grains and toast were the mainstream healthy choice for breakfast.
I started eating more red meat and other foods with saturated fat in my 40s to see if this plan would help cure my blood sugar problems. Within one week most of the symptoms I had with having low blood sugar levels went away. At that point I decided to dive deep into the research to find out if eating red meat and other foods with saturated fat was bad.
More than fifty years ago, studies on animals and humans led people to believe that eating a diet high in cholesterol and saturated fat caused high cholesterol in the blood. However, recent research and more high quality research suggests this isnt true.
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Who Is At Risk For Low Blood Pressure
Low blood pressure can happen to anyone at any age. There are several factors that can predispose some people to it more than others, including:
- Common medications for conditions like diabetes and Parkinsons disease can cause low blood pressure as a side effect.
- Diuretics that reduce the bodys salt levels can cause low blood pressure as a side effect.
- Some older adults develop postprandial hypotension, a condition in which blood pressure suddenly drops about one or two hours after eating.
Symptoms Of High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is considered a silent condition because there are usually no symptoms until some body organs are affected.
The only way to know if you have high blood pressure is by checking your blood pressure reading.
A sustained systolic blood pressure of at least 130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure of at least 80 mm Hg indicates high blood pressure.
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Foods That Encourage Low Blood Pressure
While science supports no clear-cut negative association between consuming unprocessed red meats with low levels of sodium in moderation and rising blood pressure, it doesn’t mean that red meat should top your dietary roster for optimal heart health.
If you do want to eat red meat, look for leaner cuts. According to the American Heart Association , these leaner cuts often include “round,””loin” or “sirloin” in their descriptions. Portions are important too: one serving is roughly the size of a deck of cards, AHA says.
Dr. Hirsh says the “the best foods for lowering blood pressure” are:
- Fresh fruits.
Foods And Drinks Eaten Out
Americans consume about one-third of their calories eating out, according to the Food and Drug Administration. Thanks to an FDA requirement, by Dec. 1, 2016, chain restaurants must provide calorie counts for standard menu items on menus or menu boards. Other information, such as the amounts of sodium, sugars and fats, must be made available to consumers in writing upon request.
Sit-down restaurants, such as The Cheesecake Factory and Ruby Tuesday, feature menu items marked as heart healthy or lower in sodium. Many eateries, such as McDonalds, Chipotle and Starbucks, provide nutritional menu analysis on their website.
Reading through these menus may surprise you. The flour tortilla alone used in Chipotles burritos has 690 mg of sodium. Youre better off getting three crispy corn tortillas instead, at 30 mg of sodium total. Opting for a tall nonfat iced coffee at Starbucks saves you roughly 140 mg of sodium over many of their Frappucinos with nonfat milk and no whipped cream.
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Foods As A Treatment For Low Blood Pressure
Lack of nutrition plays a large role in cases of low blood pressure.
Dehydration is one of the main causes of low blood pressure. Insufficient water levels actually reduce your blood volume. This reduction then lowers your blood pressure levels.
Doctors recommend people with low blood pressure should drink around 8 cups, about a half-gallon, of water per day. They should also limit their consumption of alcohol.
The caffeine in coffee is a stimulant. This means that it can raise your heart rate and blood pressure levels. Drinking coffee can be helpful in the short-term fix, but it isnt a permanent solution. Most people develop a tolerance to caffeine over time.
Beef liver is one of the best sources of vitamin B12. A 100 gram serving of liver contains an incredibly high amount of B12.
Low levels of vitamin B12 can cause anemia and low blood pressure.
A single egg contains high amounts of folic acid and B12.
Like vitamin B12, folic acid is an important aid for raising low blood pressure levels.
Red meat is one of the most widely available sources of iron, which is needed for raising blood pressure levels.
Beef has one of the highest iron contents that you will find in food.
When Should I Use Red Wine Vinegar
Chef Alice Waters recommends red wine vinegar for salads, which she drizzles over any type of salad, including green salads, pasta salads, and vinegary French potato salads. Use it as a garnish for soups and salty-cool gazpacho, as well as in marinades and pickles, such as Chef Thomas Kellers red onions.
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Does Eating Red Meat Cause Heart Disease If It Does Why And By How Much
A recent article published in the July 2021 issue of Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition reviewed 13 studies that combined followed more than 1.4 million people for up to 25 years. The results tracked the consumption of unprocessed red meat , processed red meat , and poultry consumption with heart disease.
These researchers showed a substantial increased risk for heart disease from eating unprocessed red meat, double the risk with processed meat consumption, yet no increased risk from eating poultry. This is yet another scientific study in a very long sequence that has noted problems with red meat intake.
How Much Read Meat Does It Take to Cause an Increased Risk?
This study showed that if you eat about 2 ounces of unprocessed red meat per day, you increase your risk for a cardiovascular event by 9%. Yet the average American eats more red meat than this and 10% of people eat a much larger serving at least twice per day.
When processed red meat intake was evaluated, it was found to double the risk, meaning an 18% increased risk from eating less than 2 ounces per day. Processed meats include hot dogs, bacon, sausage, bologna, deli meats, and hamburgermaking processed meat twice as harmful as eating a steak.
In contrast in this same study, poultry consumption did not cause any increased risk for heart disease.
And although this study did not analyze seafood intake, nearly all previous studies have shown that eating seafood lowers your risk for heart disease.
Look For Lean Cuts And Read Labels
Friswold doesnt push her patients to give up steak and hamburger entirely. But she does urge them to eat red and processed meats less frequently and in modest amounts. Use meat as a side dish more often, rather than the main dish, she says.
People dont change overnight, she says. Start with one less serving per week. Eat smaller portions. Try ground turkey burger instead of hamburger. Look at the saturated fat content of the food you buy.
Nutrition labels can be an eye opener. For instance, 80 percent lean ground beef has nearly 8 grams of fat per 4-ounce patty. Ninety-five percent lean ground beef has only 4 grams. Ground turkey , by comparison, has 2.5 grams.
Friswold says when buying red meat, look for lean cuts such as sirloin, tenderloin and round. Leaner cuts have significantly less saturated fat ounce for ounce than fattier cuts. A lean cut of beef should have no more than 4.5 grams of saturated fat per 3.5-ounce serving, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Extra-lean cuts have 2 grams or less.
Also, beware that some plant-based meatless burgers are high in saturated fat from coconut oil, Ms. Friswold says. Some may have as much or more saturated fat than extra-lean ground beef.
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In Meat Protein High Temperatures Create Chemicals That Increase Inflammation Levels In The Body
Accumulating evidence has suggested that cooking meats at high temperature can facilitate the production of several hazardous chemicals, including HAAs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and advanced glycation end products, which may induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in animal models, says Dr. Liu.
These pathophysiological pathways may also lead to an elevated risk of developing hypertension. In our study, we also found that levels of estimated intake of HAAs were independently associated with an increased risk of hypertension, suggesting that the association between high-temperature cooking and hypertension risk could be partially explained by the intake of HAAs. In addition, high-temperature cooking was associated with weight gain and obesity risk, which is an important risk factor for hypertension.
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High Blood Pressure Foods To Avoid
It is important to know which foods improve circulation and which high blood pressure foods to avoid. Eating a clean diet free from highly-processed foods is one of the best ways to stay healthy. High blood pressure is considered a major contributing factor to cardiac difficulties. But eating plant-based foods that support a healthy heart may help us live longer and more energetic lives.
According to theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention , heart disease is responsible for one in every four deaths in the United States each year. This means that there are about 659,000 deaths per year. In fact, heart disease is the leading cause of death for nearly every racial and ethnic group within the United States. Diet plays a vital role in managing blood pressure and these are the 7 high blood pressure foods to avoid.
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