Effects Of Estradiol On Vascular Tone
Functional estrogen receptors of the and subtypes are expressed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells , and it is well established that estradiol can cause vasodilation by both ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Acute administration of estradiol in vitro and in vivo induces rapid dilation of coronary arteries of cholesterol-fed ovariectomized animals . Exogenous estradiol also dilates coronary and brachial arteries in postmenopausal women and men . Long-term treatment with estradiol abrogates the vasoconstrictor effects of U46619 , phenylepinephrine, 5-HT, calcium, potassium and acetylcholine on vascular tissues such as aortic rings and coronary arteries . Compared with premenopausal women, vasodilator effects of estradiol are decreased in postmenopausal women and are normalized by estrogen replacement therapy . The vasodilator effect of estradiol replacement therapy is diminished by co-administration of synthetic progestins such as medroxyprogesterone and cyproterone acetate .
In summary, estradiol is a vasodilator that decreases vascular resistance by multiple mechanisms. Increased production of NO plays a prominent role, and increased synthesis of other endogenous vasodilators, decreased synthesis of endogenous vasoconstrictors and activation of K+ channels also contribute to the vasodilatory actions of estradiol.
How Is Testosterone Injection Given
Testosterone is injected into a muscle. The injection is usually given every 2 to 4 weeks.
Testosterone injections should be given only by a healthcare professional. Misuse can lead to serious side effects or death.
The length of treatment will depend on the condition being treated.
Testosterone will not enhance athletic performance and should not be used for that purpose.
While receiving this medicine, you will need frequent blood tests.
Testosterone can affect bone growth in boys who are treated for delayed puberty. Bone development may need to be checked with x-rays every 6 months during treatment.
What Causes Low Testosterone In Men
Theres a reason why men in their teens and 20s are completely girl crazy, have endless amounts of energy and barely need to work out to stay fit. Their testosterone is at peak production, and their body is letting them know. Although some men never lose that girl crazy stage, testosterone levels begin to slowly decrease after age 30. While testosterone levels will never reach zero, like estrogen does when women hit menopause, levels will decrease about one to two percent each year.
Many men can feel embarrassed when theyre diagnosed with low testosterone, but the fact is low testosterone affects 4 to 5 million men in the United States. Its far more common than many of us may believe.
Low testosterone in men is easily diagnosed with a simple blood test, but its cause is not always as easily pinpointed. There are many different factors that can cause testosterone levels to begin to decrease, like:
- Type 2 Diabetes
- High Blood Pressure
In some cases, restoring testosterone levels to a normal range can be as simple as treating the condition. Lets break down each factor.
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Testosterone Therapy And Blood Pressure
For many years, there was a concern that the use of supplemental testosterone would lead to high blood pressure and an increased risk of heart attacks. Today, thanks to abundant research, we know that to be the opposite of what actually occurs.
The good news for people wanting to know about testosterone therapy and blood pressure is that reversing Low T can also help reduce your blood pressure back to a normal range.
Hypertension can cause serious damage to the blood vessels, increasing the risk of strokes and heart attacks. Damage to the body is done long before most people even notice any warning signs. Men who have high blood pressure levels also have 1.8 times increased risk of Low T. High blood pressure is considered 140 over 90 of higher for a sustained time. Stage 2 hypertension starts at 160 over 100 and is cause for concern.
High blood pressure is far from the only issue facing men and women with low testosterone. They have higher risks for:
- Metabolic syndrome
Knowing as much as possible about testosterone replacement therapy and blood pressure is crucial for the maintenance of health and well-being as you age.
The Risk/benefit Ratio Of Trt
As with any medical intervention, the benefits of Low T therapy must be weighed against the potential risk of adverse reactions or side effects. Just as Paracelsus indicates, whether testosterone replacement creates a poisonous or beneficial environment is largely dependent upon how the medication is delivered and dosed.
Those who abuse testosterone and other androgens may experience significant and even life threatening side effects. Somewhat similarly, if treatment of Low T is mismanaged or not carefully monitored, patients will experience a higher rate and increased severity of adverse reactions or possibly a complete lack of meaningful results.
For the most part, this discussion will deal with side effects associated with TRT in general, but some attention will be given to particular differences in the variety of methods utilized for treatment of Low T.
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Testosterone Therapy Increases The Risk Of Heart Disease
A growing body of research indicates that testosterone therapy is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in men. A study conducted by the National Institutes of Health followed 56,000 middle-aged and older men who were prescribed testosterone therapy between 2008 and 2010. It was found that men 65 years of age and older had a twofold increase in risk of heart attack within just 90 days of starting testosterone therapy. In addition, men younger than 65 years of age with a history of heart disease experienced a two- to threefold increased risk of heart attack when taking testosterone.
Another large study published in JAMA: TheJournal of the American Medical Association discovered that men with a history of heart disease had a 30 percent increase in mortality, heart attacks, and stroke after commencing testosterone therapy. Several systematic reviews of the medical literature regarding testosterone therapy have further backed up these findings, confirming that exogenous testosterone is strongly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events.
Risk-free ways to raise testosterone without replacement therapy #testosterone #hearthealth
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Ed Usually Has Other Causes
ED is almost always caused by low blood flow to the penis. This is a result of other conditions, such as hardening of the arteries, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. These conditions narrow the blood vessels and reduce blood flow to the penis. Low testosterone may affect the desire for sex, but it rarely causes ED.
Testosterone For Erection Problems
Most men have problems with erections from time to time. But some men have erectile dysfunction, or ED. This is when it is difficult to get or keep an erection thats firm enough for sexual intercourse.
If you have ED, you may think that testosterone treatment will help. Testosterone is a male sex hormone. After age 50, mens levels of testosterone slowly go down and ED becomes more common. But unless you have other symptoms of low testosterone, you should think twice about the treatment. Heres why:
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Testosterone And Heart Disease
Testosterone has mixed effects on the arteries. Many experts believe testosterone contributes to the higher rates of heart disease and high blood pressure that tend to affect men at younger ages. By this reasoning, high testosterone might be bad for the heart.
But testosterone deficiency is connected to insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes. Each of these problems increases cardiovascular risk. Men with diabetes and low testosterone also have higher rates of atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries.
A certain amount of testosterone may be necessary for healthy arteries because it’s converted into estrogen, which protects arteries from damage. As yet, no studies show that testosterone replacement protects the heart or prevents heart attacks.
Does Testosterone Cause High Blood Pressure
Were not going to lie: the relationship between high blood pressure and testosterone is a complicated one. That is because there are so many different risk factors involved, which include:
- Family history
In addition to this, it is difficult for researchers to determine what a healthy level of testosterone is. Testosterone levels fluctuate throughout the day, and they tend to reach their peak in the morning.
Testosterone travels through your blood in different ways, including on its own. Otherwise, testosterone can travel while attached to protein hormones like globulin or albumin.
That said, prepare for your testosterone levels to start dropping around the age of 40 years old. On the bright side, there are ways to temporarily boost your testosterone too, particularly by exercising.
Conversely, those with higher levels of body fat typically have lower levels of testosterone. On top of that, some male testosterone is converted to whats known as estradiol.
And no, estradiol isnt only linked to female high testosterone levels. In fact, this form of estrogen impacts metabolism and blood vessel functioning in both women and men.
In a nutshell, the relationship between testosterone and heart health is complex. Clearly, there are tons of variables that affect male testosterone and each individual.
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When Testosterone Is Not The Answer
Testosterone therapy comes with risks, and it’s not appropriate for all men. Certain situations and certain health conditions make testosterone therapy less than a good idea and worthy of a talk with your doctor. These include:
If you have low T only. A mans testosterone level starts to fall naturally after age 40. There’s a difference between a natural decline, which often accelerates after age 60, and actual low T. We measure testosterone with a blood test,” said Dr. Gilbert. Still, having a low number without symptoms is not enough reason to treat low testosterone, he added.
If you have symptoms only.Symptoms of low testosterone may include low energy, low mood, loss of your sex drive, and poor erections. About 25 percent of men take testosterone without ever having a blood test,” Dr. Harris said. “Symptoms alone tell you nothing. You need to have low testosterone proved by blood tests along with symptoms to benefit from treatment.”
If you have prostate cancer. Testosterone therapy does not cause prostate cancer, but it can make prostate cancer grow,” said Gilbert. “It might be like adding flame to the fire.” According to guidelines from the Endocrine Society, you should not take testosterone if you have prostate cancer. If you have been successfully treated, you may be able to take testosterone, but you need to talk with your doctor. Although rare in men, breast cancer is another reason not to take testosterone.
Fewer Deaths Due To Mace Seen Over 10 Years Versus Controls
This article is a collaboration between MedPage Today and:
BOSTON — Men with hypogonadism on long-term testosterone therapy had improved cardiovascular health, according to researchers here.
According to the 10-year outcomes of hypogonadal men, fewer men experienced death from a major adverse cardiovascular events while on testosterone undecanoate treatment compared with hypogonadal men who weren’t on testosterone treatment , reported Farid Saad, PhD, of Bayer Pharma AG in Berlin, and colleagues, in a presentation at the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists annual meeting.
- Note that this study was published as an abstract and presented at a conference. These data and conclusions should be considered to be preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.
Other cardiovascular-related factors also improved among men on long-term testosterone treatment versus who weren’t :
- Systolic blood pressure : 154.1 to 131.1 mmHg for testosterone group vs 146.4 to 149.4 mmHg for controls
- Diastolic BP: 91.6 to 77.6 mmHg vs 83.9 to 87.5 mmHg
- Heart rate: 77.8 to 76.1 bpm vs 76.7 to 78 mmHg
- Pulse pressure: 62.5 to 53.5 mmHg vs unchanged at 62.5 mmHg
- Rate pressure product: 11999 to 9967 mmHg*bpm vs 11230 to 11684 mmHg*bpm
“These findings were independent of anti-hypertensive medication that patients had also been prescribed by their family physicians,” Saad told MedPage Today.
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Should I Get Low T Replacement Therapy
Wondering who should get low testosterone replacement therapy?
The answer is simple. According to the FDA, TRT therapy should be a priority for men who have low levels of testosterone in their bodies. This can be caused by several factors, including pituitary gland problems.
Plus, normal aging results in lower levels of testosterone too. Of course, this doesnt necessarily mean that theres something wrong with your body. However, if you are suffering from the effects of low testosterone, ask your doctor about TRT therapy.
But wait theres more.
TRT therapy can even be prescribed to men who dont have the levels of testosterone but want to boost their overall performance. Also, researchers have shown that heart problems might be linked to low levels of testosterone. Nobody wants that, right?
Check this out: Scientists have also proven that there is a connection between heart problems and low serum testosterone. Despite the need for more studies, new research has shown that males who undergo TRT therapy have not had an increase in their chance of developing heart issues.
To put it simply, its not testosterone replacement therapy thats connected to mens heart issues. Instead, its low testosterone levels that may be impacting a males heart health. So, those of hypogonadism have higher odds of developing heart problems in general.
Understanding Testosterone And Blood Pressure
Need a hand understanding the relationship between testosterone and blood pressure?
We can show you the way.
Since low levels of testosterone are connected to poor heart health, TRT therapy can possibly reverse these effects. By increasing the amount of testosterone in your body, you can widen arteries and reduce cardiovascular problems at the same time.
Still not convinced?
Consider this: While TRT therapy has limited side effects, there are a bunch of risks associated with other testosterone treatments. This includes symptoms such as increased urination, fluid retention, and acne problems.
In the end, the decision is easy. For those who want all of the benefits and less of the side effects, there is no better treatment than testosterone replacement therapy.
Interested in receiving testosterone replacement therapy?
If so, to schedule an appointment now!
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Trt Side Effects: Suppression Of Fertility
The production of testosterone and sperm both are controlled by what is referred to as the Hypolthalamus-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis. That is, the hypothalamus talks to the pituitary gland by mean of a chemical messenger .
The pituitary gland in turn will talk to the testicles also by means of different chemical messengers .
Low T occurs when either this hormonal cycle fails to stimulate the testes to produce testosterone or more commonly when the testes themselves fail to respond to said stimulation.
When testosterone levels are normalized, either by natural means or through treatment of Low T, the brain reduces the stimulus to produce testosterone by secreting less GnRH. Since this singular hormone controls both FSH and LH, the natural suppression of GnRH that occurs can reduce fertility.
Additionally, it is this same process that is responsible for the potential reduction in size and/or change in firmness of the testicles.
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Risks Of Prescription Testosterone Therapy
Before we close our article, we would like to discuss the risks of prescription testosterone therapy in men. By that, we are referring to alternative treatment forms like injections, skin patches, and gels. No matter which one you choose, each has its own side effects.
For example, testosterone patches can make your skin itch. Additionally, muscular injections can create mood swings in males. And if you choose the testosterone gel, our word of advice is to avoid sharing it with others.
Prescription forms of testosterone therapy can result in increased urination and fluid retention, not to mention bigger acne problems.
It can also lead to breast enlargement and reproductive health issues in males. As a matter of fact, it can even worsen the impact of sleep apnea in elderly adults.
Are you thinking about trying out testosterone replacement therapy?
First of all, congratulations. This is a great solution if you are a man who constantly suffers from low levels of testosterone. Make sure that your doctor gives you a blood test to see if your testosterone levels are impacting your general health.
That doesnt mean that you can skip out on regular exercise and a healthy diet. Rather, its best to combine your testosterone replacement therapy with both for optimal results. Dont forget to schedule follow-up monitoring appointments either.