Your Best Protection Is Knowledge Management And Prevention
- Know your numbers The best way to know if you have high blood pressure is tohave your blood pressure checked.
- Understand the symptoms and risks Learn what factors could make you more likely to develop high blood pressure and put you at risk for serious medical problems.
- Make changes that matter Take steps to reduce your risk and manage your blood pressure. Make heart-healthy lifestyle changes, take any medication as prescribed and work in partnership with your doctor.
Family History Of Cvd
If you have a family history of CVD, your risk of developing it is also increased.
You’re considered to have a family history of CVD if either:
- your father or brother were diagnosed with CVD before they were 55
- your mother or sister were diagnosed with CVD before they were 65
Tell your doctor or nurse if you have a family history of CVD. They may suggest checking your blood pressure and cholesterol level.
Testing And Diagnosis: When To See The Doctor
Your doctor will review your medical history, conduct a physical exam, and run lab tests to check your kidneys, sodium, potassium, and blood count.
One or more of the following tests may be used to help determine the cause of your symptoms:
- Electrocardiogram monitors and records your hearts electrical activity. Your doctor will attach patches to your chest, legs, and arms. The results will be visible on a screen, and your doctor will interpret them.
- Echocardiogram takes a detailed picture of your heart using ultrasound.
- Coronary angiography examines the flow of blood through your coronary arteries. A thin tube called a catheter is inserted through your groin or an artery in your arm and up into the heart.
- Exercise stress test looks at how exercise affects your heart. You may be asked to pedal an exercise bike or walk on a treadmill.
- Nuclear stress test examines the flow of blood into the heart. The test is usually conducted while youre resting and exercising.
Treatment for hypertensive heart disease depends on the seriousness of your illness, your age, and your medical history.
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Maintain A Healthy Weight
If you’re overweight or obese, a combination of regular exercise and a healthy diet can help you lose weight. Aim to get your BMI below 25.
If you’re struggling to lose weight, your GP or practice nurse can help you come up with a weight loss plan and recommend services in your area.
Eating More Fruit And Vegetables And Less Fat
People who have high blood pressure or people at high risk of developing high blood pressure should eat as little saturated and total fat as possible.
Instead, experts recommend:
- fish rich in omega-3 twice a week
- nontropical vegetable oils, for example, olive oil
- skinless poultry and fish
- low fat dairy products
It is important to avoid trans fats, hydrogenated vegetable oils, and animal fats, as well as large portion sizes.
Some fats, such as those in oily fish and olive oil, have protective effects on the heart. However, these are still fats. While they are typically healthful, people with a risk of hypertension should still include them in their total fat intake.
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Blood Pressure Management In Hypertensive Emergencies Involving Brain Damage
BP management in hypertensive emergencies involving brain damage should consider that the pathophysiology of brain damage is unique to each condition. Management should be tailored according to the disease and there is not a single recommendation that fits all. Consequently, the right diagnosis is crucial based upon clinical features, brain imaging, neurovascular evaluations and cardiac tests.
What Is The Link Between High Blood Pressure And Stroke
Strokes due to a clot in the blood supply to the brain
High blood pressure puts a strain on all the blood vessels throughout your body, including the ones leading to the brain. This strain can damage your blood vessels, causing them to become harder and narrower, a condition called atherosclerosis. This makes a blockage more likely to occur, which could cause a stroke or TIA .Stroke due to bleeding in or around the brain
The extra strain that high blood pressure puts on your blood vessels may cause a weakened blood vessel to burst inside the brain, causing bleeding on and into surrounding tissues. This is called a haemorrhagic stroke.
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Blood Pressure Management For Patients With Stable Cardiovascular Disease
There is little evidence for the benefits in total mortality, serious adverse events, or total cardiovascular events for people with hypertension and cardiovascular disease treated to lower than target BP. Also, there is very limited evidence on adverse events associated with lower BP targets, which leads to high uncertainty. At present, evidence is insufficient to justify lower BP targets in people with hypertension and established cardiovascular disease. Further randomised clinical trials are needed to address this question.
What Can I Do To Reduce My Risk For Heart Disease
If you had preeclampsia, you can make lifestyle modifications now to reduce your risk. Also you should talk to your health care provider to take extra care to monitor the health of your heart and blood vessels. If you have other risk factors in addition to your history of preeclampsia, these steps are even more important. Heart disease takes years to develop and you can take steps now to reduce your risk. Making better choices today can impact your health today and in the future.
You can also continue to monitor your blood pressure trends at home. For more information on how to accurately use a home blood pressure cuff, see our video at . Remember to “Check – Know – Share” your blood pressure trends with your care providers.
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Rates Of High Blood Pressure Control Vary By Sex And Race
Uncontrolled high blood pressure is common however, certain groups of people are more likely to have control over their high blood pressure than others.
- A greater percent of men have high blood pressure than women .3
- High blood pressure is more common in non-Hispanic black adults than in non-Hispanic white adults , non-Hispanic Asian adults , or Hispanic adults .3
- Among those recommended to take blood pressure medication, blood pressure control is higher among non-Hispanic white adults than in non-Hispanic black adults , non-Hispanic Asian adults , or Hispanic adults .3
Narrowing Of The Arteries
Coronary arteries transport blood to your heart muscle. When high blood pressure causes the blood vessels to become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow or stop. This condition is known as coronary heart disease , also called coronary artery disease.
CHD makes it difficult for your heart to function and supply the rest of your organs with blood. It can put you at risk for heart attack from a blood clot that gets stuck in one of the narrowed arteries and cuts off blood flow to your heart.
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Your Bodys Response To Stress May Be:
- A headache
- Wreak havoc on your sleep
- Make you feel cranky, forgetful or out of control
A stressful situation sets off a chain of events. Your body releases adrenaline, a hormone that temporarily causes your breathing and heart rate to speed up and your blood pressure to rise. These reactions prepare you to deal with the situation the fight or flight response.
Combined Effect On The Risk Of Cvd
The cumulative incidence rates of CVD among the four subgroups were 3.21%, 3.96%, 14.13% and 15.90%, respectively . Hypertension and heart rate were both associated with the development of CVD. Compared with the normotensives with a heart rate < 80b.p.m., the multivariable adjusted HRs of CVD for hypertensives with a heart rate < 80b.p.m. and hypertensives with a heart rate 80b.p.m. were statistically significant . The hypertensives with a heart rate 80b.p.m. were at the highest risk of CVD. No significant interaction was detected between hypertension and heart rate on the development of CVD . The AUC for the model including hypertension and heart rate 80b.p.m., and other conventional risk factors was larger than for the model including only other conventional risk factors .
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Family History Of Heart Disease
A family history of heart disease may add to your chances of developing the condition. If one or more of your family members had a heart attack before age 50, you have double the chance of developing heart disease compared with people who have no family history of the disease.4
You cant change whether heart disease runs in your family. But if you have diabetes, its even more important to take steps to protect yourself from heart disease and decrease your chances of having a stroke.
What Is The Link Between Diabetes Heart Disease And Stroke
High blood glucose from diabetes can damage your blood vessels and the nerves that control your heart and blood vessels. Over time, this damage can lead to heart disease.1
People with diabetes tend to develop heart disease at a younger age than people without diabetes. Adults with diabetes are nearly twice as likely to have heart disease or stroke as adults without diabetes.2,3
The good news is that the steps you take to manage your diabetes also help lower your chances of having heart disease or stroke.
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Blood Pressure And Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease And Stroke
There is robust evidence that screening and treatment of hypertension prevents cardiovascular disease and reduces mortality in the middle-aged population . Even in older adults, lowering BP is likely to be beneficial provided that treatment is well tolerated, despite a lack of studies to support this. However, there is a lack of high-quality evidence for a favourable harmbenefit balance of antihypertensive treatment among older adults, especially among the oldest age groups .
There has been a debate about how far BP should be lowered. The American Guidelines for Management of Hypertension, influenced by the results of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial recommends a reduction of the treatment target from 140/90 mmHg to 130/80 mmHg, including for the very old. However, some authors emphasised that there is a greater potential for harm to exceed benefit when BP targets are lowered.
What Is Heart Disease And Stroke
Heart disease and stroke are cardiovascular diseases .1
Heart disease includes several types of heart conditions. The most common type in the United States is coronary heart disease , which is narrowing of the blood vessels that carry blood to the heart.2,3 This can cause:
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Reducing Sodium And Reducing Cardiovascular Disease Burden
- Lowering high blood pressure reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke.13 Adults with elevated and high blood pressure especially benefit from lowering their blood pressure.6
- If manufacturers gradually reduced the amount of sodium in processed and prepared foods, public consumption of sodium could be reduced to safer levels with little or no change in behavior on the part of the individual consumer.14
- Sodium intake from processed and restaurant foods contributes to high rates of high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke. Because nearly 500,000 deaths each year are related to high blood pressure, reducing sodium intake could prevent thousands of deaths annually.15
- Reducing average population sodium intake to 2,300 mg per day may save $18 billion in health care dollars and reduce cases of high blood pressure by 11 million annually.16
- Sodium reduction continues to be an effective and safe strategy to lower blood pressure.3,11,17,18
- Lowering blood pressure reduces and prevents heart attacks and stroke.19
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Heart Disease High Blood Pressure And Menopause
While you may have had normal blood pressure most of your life, your chances of developing high blood pressure increase considerably after menopause.
Heart disease risk rises for everyone as they age, but for women symptoms can become more evident after the onset of menopause.
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Estimated Hypertension Prevalence Treatment And Control Among Us Adults
Clinicians diagnose patients as having hypertension and make treatment decisions by comparing patients systolic and diastolic blood pressure readings to certain thresholds.
The hypertension thresholds that clinicians use for diagnosis and patients treatment plans may differ from clinician to clinician:
- Some health care professionals diagnose patients with hypertension if their blood pressure is consistently 140/90 mm Hg or higher. This limit is based on guidelines and recommendations released in 2003 and 2014.2,3
- Other health care professionals diagnose patients with hypertension if their blood pressure is consistently 130/80 mm Hg or higher. This limit is based on the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Associations hypertension clinical practice guidelineexternal icon that was released in 2017.4
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Take Medicine To Protect Your Heart
Medicines may be an important part of your treatment plan. Your doctor will prescribe medicine based on your specific needs. Medicine may help you
- meet your A1C , blood pressure, and cholesterol goals.
- reduce your risk of blood clots, heart attack, or stroke.
- treat angina, or chest pain that is often a symptom of heart disease. Angina can also be an early symptom of a heart attack.
- treat heart failure, which is a form of heart disease in which your heart cannot pump blood well enough for your body to work properly.
Ask your doctor whether you should take daily aspirin. Aspirin is not safe for everyone. Your doctor can tell you whether taking aspirin is right for you and exactly how much to take.
Statins can reduce the risk of having a heart attack or stroke in some people with diabetes. In addition, certain diabetes medicines have been shown to reduce the risk of heart attacks and death in patients at very high risk of having a heart attack. Talk with your doctor to find out whether taking a statin or a diabetes medicine that reduces heart attack risk is right for you.
Take medicines the way your doctor or health care team tells you to. Talk with your doctor or pharmacist if you have questions about your medicines. Before you start a new medicine, ask your doctor about possible side effects and how you can avoid them. If the side effects of your medicine bother you, tell your doctor. Dont stop taking your medicines without checking with your doctor first.
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Can Hypertension Cause Other Problems
When your blood pressure is too high for too long, it damages your blood vessels and LDL cholesterol begins to accumulate along tears in your artery walls. This increases the workload of your circulatory system while decreasing its efficiency.
As a result, high blood pressure puts you at greater risk for developing life-changing and potentially life-threating conditions.
Smoking And Secondhand Smoke Exposure
Smoking is a major cause of heart disease and stroke and causes 1 in every 4 deaths from these conditions. Smoking can damage the body several ways by:
- Raising triglycerides and lowering high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, also called good cholesterol.
- Making blood sticky and more likely to clot, which can block blood flow to the heart and brain.
- Damaging cells that line the blood vessels.
- Increasing the buildup of plaque in blood vessels.
- Causing thickening and narrowing of blood vessels.
About 34 million US adults smoke cigarettes, and every day, about 1,600 young people under age 18 try their first cigarette.
CDCs Office on Smoking and Health is at the forefront of the nations efforts to reduce deaths and prevent chronic diseasesincluding heart disease and strokethat result from smoking. CDC and its partners promote efforts to prevent young people from starting to smoke, create smokefree worksites and public spaces, help smokers quit, and reduce health disparities for groups with higher rates of chronic diseases caused by smoking.
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How Does High Blood Pressure Cause A Stroke
Hypertension puts your arteries under constant stress. As with a tire thatâs been overinflated, too much force inside your blood vessels damages the artery walls and makes them weaker.
There are two main types of strokes — and high blood pressure makes both more likely.
Strokes caused by blocked blood flow. In almost 9 out of 10 cases, you have a stroke because something, usually a clot, blocks the flow of blood to the brain. Doctors call this an ischemic stroke. Without oxygen, brain cells start dying within minutes. Usually a clot forms either at the site of a clogged blood vessel or someplace else in the body and then reaches the brain. A traveling clot usually means you have an underlying issue, often an irregular heartbeat called atrial fibrillation .
The clots happen more often with high blood pressure because it speeds up atherosclerosis, a condition that makes your arteries get harder, narrower, and clogged with fatty plaque. Hypertension also makes you more likely to have atrial fibrillation. It causes blood to collect in the heart, where a clot can form. AFib is very dangerous because it raises your chances of stroke fivefold. But there are treatments for it.