Blood Pressure Management In Hypertensive Emergencies Involving Brain Damage
BP management in hypertensive emergencies involving brain damage should consider that the pathophysiology of brain damage is unique to each condition. Management should be tailored according to the disease and there is not a single recommendation that fits all. Consequently, the right diagnosis is crucial based upon clinical features, brain imaging, neurovascular evaluations and cardiac tests.
High Pressure Short Memory
Since hypertension damages blood vessels, it’s easy to see how it contributes to vascular dementia. Although the link to Alzheimer’s disease is less obvious, research suggests that vascular damage and tissue inflammation accelerate injury.
The details vary from study to study, but the weight of evidence now suggests that high blood pressure increases the risk of mild cognitive impairment, vascular dementia, and even Alzheimer’s disease. Both systolic and diastolic hypertension take a toll in general, the higher the pressure and the longer it persists without treatment, the greater the risk.
Most investigations focus on older adults. For example, a study of 2,505 men between the ages of 71 and 93 found that men with systolic pressures of 140 mm Hg or higher were 77% more likely to develop dementia than men with systolic pressures below 120 mm Hg.
Doctors may be able to help ease the burden of dementia, but the damage and disability cannot be reversed. That makes prevention doubly important. Can treating hypertension help prevent dementia?
Does Anxiety Cause High Blood Pressure
Anxiety doesnt cause long-term high blood pressure . But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, temporary spikes in your blood pressure.
Normal: Less than 120/80. Elevated: Systolic between 120-129 and diastolic less than 80. Stage 1 hypertension: Systolic between 130-139 or diastolic between 80-89.
You May Like: Claratin Blood Pressure
How Is High Blood Pressure Diagnosed
Since high blood pressure doesnt have symptoms, your healthcare provider will need to check your blood pressure with a blood pressure cuff. Providers usually check your blood pressure at every annual checkup or appointment. If you have high blood pressure readings at two appointments or more, your provider may tell you that you have high blood pressure.
Blood Pressure Medications Can Lead To Increased Risk Of Stroke Study Finds
Untreated high blood pressure, or hypertension, wreaks havoc on the body, leading to heart disease and stroke. New research from the University of Alabama at Birmingham published in the journal Stroke shows that, although HBP medications are beneficial, it is as risky to wait for the condition to develop and then treat it to a controlled level.
A cohort of 26,785 black and white participants ages 45-plus from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study were followed for 6.3 years by a research team led by George Howard, Dr.P.H., a professor in the Department of Biostatistics in the UAB School of Public Health. At baseline, 12,327 participants were successfully treated hypertensives, meaning their HBP treatment had their systolic blood pressure < 140 mm Hg, the goal level set by the American Heart Association, and 4,090 unsuccessfully treated hypertensives.
At the conclusion of the follow-up period, more than 820 participants had experienced a stroke.
The harder hypertension is to control, the higher the risk for stroke, even if the treatment is successful. Howard says the risk of stroke went up 33 percent with each blood pressure medicine required to treat blood pressure to goal. Compared to people with systolic blood pressure below 120 mm Hg without treatment, hypertensive individuals on three or more blood pressure medications had a stroke risk of 2.5 times higher.
Also Check: Vitamin For Low Blood Pressure
What Medications Are Used To Treat High Blood Pressure
Four classes of high blood pressure medications are considered first line when starting treatment. Sometimes other medications are coupled with these first-line drugs to better control your high blood pressure. First-line, pressure-lowering medications are:
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors block the production of the angiotensin II hormone, which the body naturally uses to control blood pressure. When angiotensin II is blocked, your blood vessels dont narrow. Examples: lisinopril , enalapril or captopril.
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers block this same hormone from binding with receptors in the blood vessels. ARBs work the same way as ACE inhibitors to keep blood vessels from narrowing. Examples: metoprolol , valsartan or losartan.
- Calcium channel blockers prevent calcium from entering the muscle cells of your heart and blood vessels, allowing these vessels to relax. Examples: amlodipine , nifedipine , diltiazem .
- Diuretics flush excess sodium from your body, reducing the amount of fluid in your blood. Diuretics are often used with other high blood pressure medicines, sometimes in one combined pill. Examples: indapamide, hydrochlorothiazide or chlorothiazide.
How Can I Lower My Risk Of Stroke
Many strokes are preventable and its possible to lower your risk of having a stroke by making healthy changes to your lifestyle and getting treatment for health problems which are linked to stroke.
Healthy changes to your lifestyleThere are you can make to your lifestyle to lower your blood pressure and your risk of stroke. In particular, stopping smoking, watching what you drink, getting active, keeping to a healthy weight and , for example by and and more .
Treatment for health problemsIts important to find out if you have any existing medical problems and get treatment and advice to make sure they are well controlled, including , , and heart problems such as and atrial flutter where the heart beat is too fast or irregular. Atrial fibrillation often has no symptoms so you might not be aware of it, and treatment with medications greatly reduces the risk of stroke.
Visit your GP to have your blood pressure, pulse and cholesterol checked and ask about the health of your heart and your risk of diabetes. You can also have an NHS Health Check .
Stroke AssociationStroke Association has information on stroke and its causes and treatments, information on life after stroke, including returning to work and driving, as well as how to find support as you recover, including services in your area, a helpline, and a forum for sharing experiences.
Recommended Reading: Do Allergy Pills Raise Blood Pressure
What Can I Expect If I Have This Condition
Since high blood pressure doesnt cause many symptoms at first, you probably wont feel any different with a high blood pressure diagnosis. But its important to follow your providers instructions to bring your blood pressure down so it doesnt cause serious illnesses later in life.
How long does high blood pressure last?
If you have primary high blood pressure, youll need to control it for the rest of your life.
If you have secondary high blood pressure, your blood pressure will most likely come down after you receive treatment for the medical problem that caused it. If a medication caused your high blood pressure, switching to a different medicine may lower your blood pressure.
What is the outlook for high blood pressure?
You can get seriously ill if you dont treat your high blood pressure. However, if you take the medicines your provider ordered, you can control your blood pressure. Exercising and eating healthy foods also helps lower your blood pressure.
What Can I Do To Help Myself
To give yourself the best possible chance of lowering your blood pressure, take your medication according to the packets instructions and as advised by your doctor. You should have your blood pressure checked and your medication reviewed at least once a year. Your doctor may want to check this more regularly soon after initiating or changing any treatments.
If you have trouble remembering to take it, ask your GP or pharmacist for your medication to be given to you in pre-filled boxes with times clearly marked on them.
These tips for healthy lifestyle choices can also help to lower your blood pressure:
- Reduce your salt intake. Dont add salt to your food, and avoid processed foods that contain a lot of salt.
- Eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables each day.
Read Also: Does Claritin Increase Blood Pressure
The Effects Of Hypertension And High Blood Pressure On Strokes
Office of Public Affairs
Over 40% of the US population are not able to recognize the symptoms of a stroke. Could you? Identifying the symptoms of a stroke isnt difficult, once you know what they are. Understanding the symptoms of and how to respond to a stroke could save someones life somedayeven yours. Beyond that, learning about strokes can help prevent a loved one from experiencing a stroke in the first place. But did you know that you can actually prevent a stroke? To understand how to stop a stroke from happening, you first have to understand what takes place in the body when a stroke hits and why they happen in the first place.
How Do I Know If I Have High Blood Pressure
Theres only one way to know if you have high blood pressure: Have a doctor or other health professional measure it. Measuring your blood pressure is quick and painless.
Talk with your health care team about regularly measuring your blood pressure at home, also called self-measured blood pressure monitoring.
High blood pressure is called the silent killer because it usually has no warning signs or symptoms, and many people do not know they have it.
Read Also: Claritin And Hypertension
What Is A Stroke
A stroke occurs when a part of the brain becomes deprived of blood and oxygen, which typically happens when a blood vessel ruptures or becomes blocked. This causes cell death in the area of the brain that would normally be supplied by the affected blood vessel. Because different parts of the brain control different movements, sensations, and functions of the body, the way a person is affected by their stroke can vary significantly.
Strokes can also vary widely in severity, but stroke is consistently listed as one of the leading causes of death in the United States, contributing to the death of nearly 130,000 people in the US every year. Sadly, this accounts for nearly 1 in every 20 deaths.Chances are, you know or will know someone affected by stroke. One person in the US experiences a stroke every 40 seconds, and a person dies from a stroke about every 4 minutes.
Pretty scary stuff.
But here’s the good news: Despite how serious of a health problem stroke can be, it is preventable. In fact, it’s the leading preventable cause of disability. One of the most important things you can do to protect you and your loved ones is to take control of the many lifestyle-related factors which can increase your risk of having a stroke. After quitting cigarette smoking, high blood pressure is the single most important risk factor to control.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Stroke
Remember F.A.S.T. which stands for Face, Arms, Speech, Time, to recognise if someone is having a stroke.
Face has their face fallen on one side? Can they smile?
Arms can they raise both arms and keep them there?
Speech is their speech slurred?
A stroke can sometimes have the following symptoms too:
- a sudden and extremely painful headache
- feeling confused
- feeling dizzy or unsteady or losing co-ordination
- slurring words or struggling to find words or put sentences together
- struggling to understand what people are saying
- sudden loss of vision or blurred vision
- being paralysed or feeling numb or weak on one side of the body
- difficulty swallowing
You May Like: Vinegar For Blood Pressure
How Does High Blood Pressure Increase Your Risk Of A Stroke
As described above, hypertension damages and weakens your blood vessels. This includes blood vessels that deliver oxygen to parts of your brain.
During a hemorrhagic stroke, a weak blood vessel ruptures. As a result, part of the brain is deprived of oxygen. If it goes without oxygen for too long, the affected part of the brain can die.
High blood pressure also increases the risk that a blood clot will develop in the brain and block the flow of blood. When the blood vessels are clogged with plaque, the risk of this happening is even higher.
This is called an ischemic stroke. As with a hemorrhagic stroke, if the affected part of the brain doesnt get the oxygen it needs, it could die.
Both types of strokes can affect key functions, such as your ability to speak, move, and remember.
If youve been diagnosed with elevated or high blood pressure, your doctor will help you understand the steps you need to take to lower your blood pressure.
This might include monitoring your blood pressure at home, changing your day-to-day habits, and taking medication.
You can get started right away with the following lifestyle changes:
- Make time for physical activity. Choose an activity that you enjoy, such as walks with a friend, yoga, or a water aerobics class. Try to find something that youre more likely to stick with and will do on a regular basis.
- Lose weight or maintain a moderate weight. If youre overweight,
What Can I Do To Prevent Or Manage High Blood Pressure
Many people with high blood pressure can lower their blood pressure into a healthy range or keep their numbers in a healthy range by making lifestyle changes. Talk with your health care team about
- Getting at least 150 minutes of physical activity each week
- Not smoking
- Managing stress
In addition to making positive lifestyle changes, some people with high blood pressure need to take medicine to manage their blood pressure. Learn more about medicines for high blood pressure.
Talk with your health care team right away if you think you have high blood pressure or if youve been told you have high blood pressure but do not have it under control.
Recommended Reading: Vinegar And Blood Pressure
How Is Stroke Diagnosed
A stroke is a medical emergency, and as soon as you arrive at the hospital, the team will want to find out as much as they can to see if you have had a stroke and what caused it. This will help them decide on the best treatment.
You will have your blood pressure measured and your pulse checked to see if you have an irregular heartbeat, and blood tests to check your blood cholesterol and sugar levels.
You may also have scans of your brain. These help the team to see which part of the brain is affected, and whether the cause was a burst blood vessel or a blocked artery. The scans usually used are:
- CT scan which is similar to an X-ray but more detailed and gives a 3D image
- MRI scan this gives a very detailed 3D image which is taken in a large tunnel-shaped scanner and tends to be used in people with more complex symptoms
A number of other tests may be done later which can help the team to tailor your treatment. For example, a swallow test to see if you can swallow food and drink safely, a mobility test to see how well you can move around, and a number of other tests on your heart and blood vessels.
What If Lifestyle Changes Dont Help Lower My Blood Pressure
If diet, exercise and other lifestyle changes dont work to lower your blood pressure, your healthcare provider will prescribe medications to help lower your blood pressure. Your provider will take into account other conditions you may have, such as heart or kidney disease and other drugs youre taking when prescribing medications to treat your high blood pressure. Be sure to follow your providers dosing directions exactly.
Read Also: What Causes Blood Pressure To Drop
What Is Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the vital force that propels oxygen-rich blood to all parts of your body. Your heart is the pump that generates the force, and your arteries are the channels that transport and distribute the blood.
The height of your blood pressure is determined by how forcefully your heart’s main pumping chamber, the left ventricle, contracts, and by the diameter and stiffness of your arteries. In turn, your heart and arteries are influenced by a large number of genetic, hormonal, metabolic, neurological, psychological, and lifestyle factors that determine your blood pressure. Because these influences are so numerous and complex, your blood pressure can vary from minute to minute and hour to hour during the course of the day, to say nothing of the slower shifts that occur over the course of a lifetime.
Blood pressure has two components. Your systolic blood pressure is the higher number, recorded while your heart is pumping blood into your arteries your diastolic blood pressure is the lower number, recorded when your heart is relaxing and refilling with blood between beats. Both numbers are calibrated in millimeters of mercury , a vestige of the mercury column used in the first pressure manometers more than 100 years ago. By convention, the higher number is recorded first a systolic pressure of 110 mm Hg and diastolic pressure of 70 mm Hg would be written as 110/70 and pronounced “110 over 70.”
Know The Symptoms Of Stroke:
During a stroke, minutes matter. if you have any of the symptoms below:
- Sudden weakness or numbness on one side of the face or body, including a leg or an arm
- Sudden trouble seeing with one or both eyes
- Sudden double vision
- Sudden problems using or understanding words
- Sudden dizziness or loss of balance
- Seizures for the first time
- Any of these symptoms that occur and then resolve
During a stroke, blood supply to the brain is cut off. But with prompt medical help, a better recovery is more likely. Dont wait.
To reduce your risk of stroke, have your blood pressure checked and keep it in check.
Tips for reducing hypertension:
Don’t Miss: Does Claritin D Cause High Blood Pressure