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How Does Hypertension Affect The Heart

Lower Blood Pressure With Beet Juice

Hypertension- causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

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Effects Of High Blood Pressure On The Heart And Body:

  • 1. Stroke
  • If there is one thing that makes a patient pause, it is the risk of stroke. And high blood pressure can increase your stroke risk. Got your attention now?
  • 2. Atherosclerosis
  • Hypertension can also damage the tissues lining the blood vessels contributing to a hardening and narrowing of the artery walls. This allows cholesterol to build up, inflammation to arise and oxidative stress to occur. Ultimately, a blockage or blood clot in the artery can form.
  • 3. Artery damage
  • As the insides of your arteries narrow from high blood pressure, they become more and more damaged. This damage can contribute to an increased risk for heart arrhythmias , heart attack and stroke over time.
  • 4. Sexual dysfunction
  • High blood pressure is closely linked to sexual dysfunction. Low levels of nitric oxide are a factor in both high blood pressure and erectile dysfunction, making them interrelated. High blood pressure decreases blood flow and can cause erectile dysfunction. Hypertension can also reduce sexual desire.
  • 5. Aneurysm
  • High blood pressure is also a risk factor for an aneurysm . Over time, if there is constant pressure pushing on a weakened artery, this can lead to a bulge in the blood vessel and an aneurysm can result. Aneurysms can rupture and lead to internal bleeding. They can form in any artery yet are most likely to occur in your main artery of the heart called the aorta.
  • 6. Atrial fibrillation
  • 7. Heart failure
  • 8. Dementia
  • 9. Kidney Disease
  • 10. Eye damage
  • High Blood Pressure Causes And Risk Factors

    Are certain people more likely to have high blood pressure? The answer is yes, but many factors could be involved. One factor is simply being a man high blood pressure affects men more than women. While all the causes of high blood pressure are not completely known, simply having high blood pressure for too long is definitely not a good thing. The following are well-known contributors to high blood pressure:

    • Smoking
    • Chronic kidney disease
    • Adrenal, thyroid, and other disorders

    In some cases, high blood pressure may be related to taking certain medications or having other health issues. This is called secondary hypertension.

    Of course, you cant control things like your gender, genetics, race or your age. But youll notice that most of the contributing factors are diet and lifestyle related that are within your control, which is great news for your health.

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    What Is The Pulse Rate

    The pulse rate is a measurement of the heart rate, or the number of times the heart beats per minute. As the heart pushes blood through the arteries, the arteries expand and contract with the flow of the blood. Taking a pulse not only measures the heart rate, but also can indicate the following:

    • Heart rhythm

    • Strength of the pulse

    The normal pulse for healthy adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute. The pulse rate may fluctuate and increase with exercise, illness, injury, and emotions. Females ages 12 and older, in general, tend to have faster heart rates than do males. Athletes, such as runners, who do a lot of cardiovascular conditioning, may have heart rates near 40 beats per minute and experience no problems.

    What Can I Expect If I Have Hypertensive Heart Disease

    What is High Blood Pressure?

    Hypertensive heart disease is a long-term disease that takes years to develop. Over time, people who have it are at a higher and higher risk of dying from a cardiovascular problem. The prognosis for people with hypertensive cardiovascular disease is different from person to person, depending on:

    • What symptoms youre having.
    • Whether you have cardiovascular disease or risk factors.
    • Other medical conditions you have.

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    How Is Amyloidosis Diagnosed With High Protein In Urine

    Protein in the urine is an indication of kidney complications. If amyloidosis is suspected through this and other test results and associated symptoms, in most cases a biopsy of renal tissue is recommended to get an accurate diagnosis. This renal biopsy tissue is sent to a lab for Congo-red staining.

    Cardiac And Vascular Pathology In Hypertension: Key Points

    • Increased peripheral vascular resistance is the hallmark of established hypertension, but altered cardiac function also probably contributes to the raised blood pressure

    • Large elastic arteries are important in damping the pulsatile flow created by the heart

    • Pressure wave reflection from downstream affects the pressure waveform in arteries and this is responsible for raised brachial systolic blood pressure compared with central aortic systolic pressure

    • Hypertension causes cardiac and vascular remodelling and hypertrophy. This helps to normalise left ventricular and arterial wall stress and may compensate for a reduction in myocardial fibre function to preserve cardiac output

    • Hypertensive vessels are not inherently stiffer than normal blood vessels. All vessels become stiffer as they are distended and the increased stiffness in hypertension is a reflection of this

    • Hypertension is associated with reduced vasodilator reserve and a reduction in microvascular density

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    High Blood Pressure And Hypertensive Crisis

    If your blood pressure readings exceed 180/120 mm Hg and you have any symptoms such as headache, chest pain, nausea/vomiting or dizziness, call 911 immediately. If you dont have any symptoms, wait five minutes and then test your blood pressure again.

    Also contact your health care professional immediately if your readings are still unusually high and you arent experiencing any other symptoms of target organ damage such as chest pain, shortness of breath, back pain, numbness/weakness, change in vision or difficulty speaking. You could be experiencing a hypertensive crisis.

    Animal Models Of Hypertension

    High Blood Pressure | Hypertension | Nucleus Health

    Primary Hypertension

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats introduced by Okamoto and Aoki , are widely used in experimental research as genetic model of hypertension . These rats develop hypertension without any physiological, pharmacological or surgical procedures.

    Similarly to hypertensive patients, SHRs have been shown to be hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic . Moreover, it is suggested that these animals have reduced peripheral glucose utilization, which also makes them insulin resistant . Bearing in mind that both glucose gradient across the PM and insulin action determine the rate of glucose influx and intracellular utilization, systemic abnormalities occurring in SHRs may directly affect myocardial metabolism . Intriguingly, it was demonstrated that the uptake of the glucose tracer 2-FDG was severalfold increased in SHR hearts . Moreover, Hajri et al. investigation also found impaired myocardial uptake of fatty acid analog BMIPP. Other studies, which showed diminished palmitate oxidation and moderately elevated glucose oxidation in the perfused hearts, also revealed a shift toward glucose use instead of fatty acid in SHR strain . Furthermore, it was revealed that myocardial level of total carnitine was significantly reduced in SHR . Therefore, the above increase in glucose uptake reflects a compensatory response to defective myocardial fatty acid utilization, but not benefits of glucose and insulin abundance.

    Secondary Hypertension

    Renal models
    Endocrinal models

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    Myth: I Have High Blood Pressure And My Doctor Checks It For Me This Means I Dont Need To Check It At Home

    Because blood pressure can fluctuate, home monitoring and recording of blood pressure readings can provide your healthcare provider with valuable information to determine whether you really have high blood pressure and, if you do, whether your treatment plan is working. Its important to take the readings at the same time each day, such as morning and evening, or as your healthcare professional recommends.

    Some Home Remedies That Help To Control Blood Pressure

    Although medications can treat high blood pressure, we should avoid supplements if we have incredible natural homemade supplements to treat high blood pressure.


    Garlic is an antibacterial and antifungal food. Its primary active component, allicin, is frequently credited with related health advantages. It stimulates the bodys synthesis of nitric oxide, which aids in the relaxation of smooth muscles and the dilation of blood vessels. These modifications have the potential to lower blood pressure.

    In hypertensive individuals, garlic extract decreased both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Garlic can improve the flavor of various savory dishes, including stir-fries, soups, and omelets. Using garlic instead of salt can help to improve heart health even further.


    Oats include beta-glucan fiber, which has the ability to lower your blood cholesterol levels. According to certain studies, beta-glucan may also help to reduce blood pressure. A larger intake of beta-glucan fiber may reduce both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

    This fiber is also in barley. Start the day with a bowl of oatmeal, or add texture to the meat or veggie burger patties by using rolled oats instead of breadcrumbs.

    Green Leafy Vegetables

    Nitrates, which are abundant in leafy green vegetables, aid with blood pressure control. According to some studies, consuming 12 servings of nitrate-rich veggies each day can lower blood pressure for up to 24 hours.


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    What Do Blood Pressure Numbers Mean

    Blood pressure is measured using two numbers:

    The first number, called systolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats.

    The second number, called diastolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart rests between beats.

    If the measurement reads 120 systolic and 80 diastolic, you would say, 120 over 80, or write, 120/80 mmHg.

    Ways To Lower Your Blood Pressure

    Group II Pulmonary Hypertension due to Left Heart Disease

    Here are some steps you may consider taking to help lower your blood pressure:

    • Reduce stress: You may need to make changes in the hours you work, your activities, or even your relationships.
    • Try slow, deep, rhythmic breathing: You may try meditation, yoga, or other practices that encourage slowing down and taking time to focus on your breathing.
    • Prepare healthy snacks in advance: Youll be less likely to reach for processed foods if you already have fruits and veggies cut up.
    • Sign-up for an exercise class or running group: Working out with friends can make it more fun and add accountability.

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    How Is Hypertensive Heart Disease Diagnosed

    Your doctor will look for certain signs of hypertensive heart disease, including:

    • Fluid in the lungs or lower extremities
    • Unusual heart sounds

    Your doctor may perform tests to determine if you have hypertensive heart disease, including an electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, cardiac stress test, chest X-ray, and coronary angiogram.

    First Misconception Is That High Blood Pressure Isnt A Big Deal

    Early on, you may not notice symptoms of high blood pressure, so you may not be too concerned. However, in the long run high blood pressure can kill you. Normally, your heart beats regularly, pumping blood through the vessels all over your body. As the blood is pushed by the heartbeat, the blood in turn pushes against the sides of your blood vessels. Blood vessels are flexible and can widen or constrict as needed to keep blood flowing well. For a variety of reasons, your blood may begin to push too hard against the blood vessels. This elevated blood pressure, which can cause your arteries to become stiff over time, is how problems begin.

    High blood pressure can lead to damage of your blood vessels, heart, kidneys, and other organs in your body. Heart disease and stroke, both caused by high blood pressure, are the first and fifth leading causes of death in the U.S.

    The scary thing about high blood pressure is that you may have it without even knowing it. Thats why doctors often call high blood pressure the silent killer. Health care professionals agree: High blood pressure is a big deal.

    To understand the numbers, normal blood pressure is less than 120 over less than 80 elevated is 120-129 over less than 80 hypertension stage 1 is 130-139 or 80-89 and hypertension stage 2 is greater than 140 or greater than 90 .

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    What Is Blood Pressure

    Your heart pumps blood around your body through a network of vessels called arteries. With each heartbeat the blood pushes against the artery walls. The strength of this ‘pushing’ is your blood pressure .

    Your blood pressure changes throughout the day. It’s lower when you’re asleep or relaxing and goes up when you move around. It can also be increased by stress or extreme emotions and stimulants like nicotine or caffeine.

    Some people’s blood pressure stays above recommended levels. This is known as high blood pressure . This can lead to damaged arteries and increase your risk of:

    This can happen for a range of reasons and there’s a number of things you can do to reduce your blood pressure.

    Treatment Of High Blood Pressure

    How blood pressure works – Wilfred Manzano

    Treatment for HBP depends on its severity and associated risks of developing other diseases. Treatment options include:

    Lifestyle changes


    • ACE inhibitors will help blood vessels relax and open up, leading to a lower blood pressure.
    • Angiotensin II receptor blockers will help blood vessels open up, leading to a lower blood pressure.
    • Beta blockers will help reduce your blood pressure.
    • Alpha blockers will help reduce the arteries resistance, relaxing the muscle tone of the vascular walls.
    • Alpha-2 receptor agonists will help reduce blood pressure by decreasing the activity of the sympathetic portion of the involuntary nervous system.
    • Calcium channel blockers will help relax and open up narrowed blood vessels, reduce heart rate and lower blood pressure.
    • Combined alpha and beta blockers are used as an IV drip for those patients experiencing a hypertensive crisis.
    • Central agonists will help decrease the blood vessels ability to tense up or contract.
    • Diuretics water pills will help reduce the amount of fluid retention in your body.
    • Peripheral adrenergic inhibitors will help reduce blood pressure by blocking neurotransmitters in the brain.
    • Vasodilators will help the muscle in the walls of the blood vessels to relax, allowing the vessel to dilate.

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    Diet Soda Diabetes And Eye Disease

    Unfortunately, increased mortality rates arent the only bad news surfacing from diet soda studies.

    A 2018 study found that people with diabetes who consumed more than 4 cans of diet soda per week were two times more likely to develop a diabetes complication called proliferative diabetic retinopathy .

    But if you read the entire study, the authors reported that those with increased risk of retinopathy were those with type 1 diabetes, had a greater BMI, 55 percent were current smokers, had elevated blood fat levels, and high blood pressure which can all contribute to the development of eye disease.

    When authors adjusted the results for variables such as A1c levels , age, gender, smoking, etc., there was no difference in eye disease between the diet soda drinkers and the non-consumers except those with the highest consumption.

    So, everything in moderation even no calorie soda is still a good motto to live by.

    If You Suspect Youre Having A Heart Attack

    Pain or pressure in the chest is the most common symptom of a heart attack. Other symptoms include:

    • Pain or discomfort in the arms, back, neck, jaw or stomach
    • Shortness of breath with or without chest discomfort
    • Nausea or light-headedness

    If you experience one or more of these warning signs, call 911 immediately, even if youre not sure its a heart attack. EMS staff can begin treatment when they arrive up to an hour sooner than if someone gets to the hospital by a vehicle. People with chest pain who arrive by ambulance usually receive faster treatment at the hospital, too.

    Dont let high blood pressure cause a heart attack:

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    How Can I Tell If I Have High Blood Pressure

    The only way to know if you have hypertension is to have your blood pressure checked regularly.

    You will want an average of two or more readings on two or more occasions to verify if you have high blood pressure.

    You should check your blood pressure yearly and more frequently if youve had high or low blood pressure. Sometimes it helps to keep a blood pressure diary. Bring your recordings into your doctor. Dont check more than once per day, but check at variable times. One day in the morning, the next day at lunch, and the next day at dinner.


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