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What Causes Elevated Blood Pressure

What Is Ace Inhibitors Medication

Blood pressure: what causes high blood pressure?

ACE inhibitors are another class of antihypertensive drugs. They reduce the body’s levels of angiotensin II, a substance that narrows blood vessels. This means that arteries are more open and the blood pressure is lower. ACE inhibitors can be used alone, or with other medications such as diuretics. Side effects of ACE inhibitors can include skin rash, dry cough, dizziness, and elevated potassium levels. Women who are pregnant, planning to get pregnant, or breastfeeding should not take ACE inhibitors.

High Blood Pressure Causes By Race

African-Americans are at greater risk of developing hypertension than people of other races. African-Americans develop high blood pressure earlier in life and have more difficulty achieving blood pressure goals. Some studies suggest that African-Americans may be more sensitive to salt than other races. For those who are genetically prone to salt sensitivity, a small amount of salt can raise blood pressure by 5 mm Hg. Dietary factors and being overweight can also raise blood pressure.

Diastolic Hypertension Vs Systolic Hypertension

For decades, it was assumed that diastolic hypertension, an increase in the bottom number of blood pressure readings, was a more concerning finding than systolic hypertension. However, this thinking has now changed, as systolic blood pressure has been found to play a more significant role in the development of various blood pressure complications such as stroke and left ventricular hypertrophy.

A recent study assessing cardiovascular risk in treated hypertensive men found that the control of systolic blood pressure was more important for overall survival, with diastolic blood pressure having little value for predicting future cardiovascular risk.

Also read: What causes systolic hypertension?

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Here Are The Top Contributing Factors

High blood pressure isn’t something that develops overnight. It generally happens over time and can be the result of unhealthy lifestyle choices, including diet, lack of exercise, smoking, and stress. A few health conditions, including diabetes and obesity, can also increase your chances of developing hypertension.

What Qualifies As High Blood Pressure

12 Hypertension Causes

Blood pressure consists of two numbers a top and bottom number. Thus, there are three types of hypertension.

  • High diastolic blood pressure called diastolic hypertension occurs when the bottom number is above 80 mmHg.
  • High systolic blood pressure called systolic hypertension is present when the top number is above 130 mmHG.
  • Mixed hypertension occurs when both numbers are high.
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    What Are The Signs Of High Blood Pressure

    When a woman has high blood pressure, the heart works harder than usual to force oxygenated blood through the body.

    What are some of the signs that you have this condition?

    You may notice that your hands and feet feel swollen or puffy.

    Women with hypertension will also experience headaches and vision changes such as blurry eyesight.

    If you believe youre experiencing any of these symptoms, be sure to seek medical attention immediately so they can diagnose whats causing them.

    How To Understand High Blood Pressure Readings

    Two numbers create a blood pressure reading. Systolic pressure indicates the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats and pumps out blood. Diastolic pressure is the reading of the pressure in your arteries between beats of your heart.

    Five categories define blood pressure readings for adults:

    • Healthy: A healthy blood pressure reading is less than 120/80 millimeters of mercury .
    • Elevated: The systolic number is between 120 and 129 mm Hg, and the diastolic number is less than 80 mm Hg. Doctors usually dont treat elevated blood pressure with medication. Instead, your doctor may encourage lifestyle changes to help lower your numbers.
    • Stage 1 hypertension: The systolic number is between 130 and 139 mm Hg, or the diastolic number is between 80 and 89 mm Hg.
    • Stage 2 hypertension: The systolic number is 140 mm Hg or higher, or the diastolic number is 90 mm Hg or higher.
    • Hypertensive crisis: The systolic number is over 180 mm Hg, or the diastolic number is over 120 mm Hg. Blood pressure in this range requires urgent medical attention. If any symptoms like chest pain, headache, shortness of breath, or visual changes occur when blood pressure is this high, medical care in the emergency room is needed.

    A blood pressure reading is taken with a pressure cuff. For an accurate reading, its important you have a cuff that fits. An ill-fitting cuff may deliver inaccurate readings.

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    Causes Of Sudden High Blood Pressure

    Spikes of high blood pressure are always a concern. A client of mine asked me about them because he was getting some himself. While he knew the cause of his, he wanted to know all of them. Therefore, what are causes of sudden high blood pressure?

    Causes of sudden high blood pressure include the following:

    • Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Pregnancy Related High Blood Pressure
    • Scleroderma
    • Illegal drugs
    • Smoking

    This article will explain in detail each one of the causes. Knowing what causes sudden high blood pressure is a must know for anyone, especially for those struggling with blood pressure already .

    What’s The Impact Of Having High Blood Pressure

    What causes high blood pressure?

    High blood pressure is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases such as:

    • coronary heart disease – where the main arteries that supply your heart become clogged up with plaques
    • strokes – a serious condition where the blood supply to your brain is interrupted
    • heart attacks – a serious condition where the blood supply to part of your heart is blocked

    Diabetes and kidney disease are also linked to high blood pressure complications.

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    What Questions Should I Ask My Provider

    • Are there supplements or non-prescription medicines that I shouldnt take?
    • Can I keep taking these medicines if I get pregnant?
    • What kinds of exercise should I do?

    A note from Cleveland Clinic

    If you dont treat high blood pressure, it can put you at risk for developing serious illnesses later in life such as heart attack, kidney failure and stroke. But if you follow your providers instructions, you can control your blood pressure. Be sure to take any medicines your provider ordered as instructed. Keep taking them even if your blood pressure numbers begin to fall into the normal range. Living a healthy lifestyle by eating healthy foods, watching your weight and getting regular exercise is also a great way to help control your blood pressure.

    Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 09/21/2021.

    References

    Prevalence Of High Blood Pressure And High Cholesterol

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , nearly one-half of adults in the United States have high blood pressure, but only half of these people have their blood pressure treated appropriately.

    Two-thirds of U.S. adults have high cholesterol, and of these only one-third have it appropriately treated.

    It is well-known that both high blood pressure and high cholesterol on their own contribute to atherosclerosis and increase the risk of cardiovascular events like heart disease and stroke. But there appears to be a more complicated interplay between high cholesterol and high blood pressure.

    For one, when the risk factors for high blood pressure and high cholesterol occur together, they further increase the risk of cardiovascular events. And treating high cholesterol in a patient already treated for high blood pressure further reduces their risk of cardiovascular events. This demonstrates that it’s even more important to treat high blood pressure and high cholesterol when they occur together.

    Furthermore, high cholesterol and high blood pressure frequently do occur together, and studies have shown that high cholesterol is associated with and may contribute to high blood pressure later in life. It’s important to look for and treat other risk factors when either one is present.

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    Stroke And Brain Problems

    High blood pressure can cause the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the brain to burst or be blocked, causing a stroke. Brain cells die during a stroke because they do not get enough oxygen. Stroke can cause serious disabilities in speech, movement, and other basic activities. A stroke can also kill you.

    Having high blood pressure, especially in midlife, is linked to having poorer cognitive function and dementia later in life. Learn more about the link between high blood pressure and dementia from the National Institutes of Healths Mind Your Risks®external icon campaign.

    What Is Normal Blood Pressure

    BETTY C. JUNG

    A blood pressure reading is written like this: 120/80. It’s read as “120 over 80.” The top number is called the systolic, and bottom number is called the diastolic. The ranges are:

    • Normal: Less than 120 over 80
    • Elevated: 120-129/less than 80
    • Stage 1 high blood pressure: 130-139/80-89
    • Stage 2 high blood pressure: 140 and above/90 and above
    • Hypertension crisis: higher than 180/higher than 120 — See a doctor right away

    If your blood pressure is above the normal range, talk to your doctor about how to lower it.

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    Ptsd And High Blood Pressure

    A growing body of research has linked post-traumatic stress disorder to high blood pressure.

    Researchers arent sure about the mechanism underlying the relationship between PTSD and high blood pressure, but it may have something to do with higher levels of inflammation in patients with PTSD, which may increase blood pressure.

    Since PTSD has a much higher incidence in veterans, experts say screening for high blood pressure should be routine not only in active soldiers who are at risk, but also for those who are no longer active and receive care from Veterans Affairs hospitals.

    The AHA is the nations oldest and largest nonprofit organization dedicated to fighting heart disease, as well as its major risk factors, including high blood pressure. The AHA funds lifesaving research and advocates for people affected by all heart-related issues. You can also find diet and lifestyle tips for getting your blood pressure under control.

    Million Hearts is a national initiative led by the CDC and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Its goal is to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes within five years. It focuses on small steps people can take to reduce risk factors for these heart events, including blood pressure control.

    Quitting Smoking And Limiting Alcohol

    If youre a smoker and have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, your doctor will most likely advise you to quit. The chemicals in tobacco smoke can damage the bodys tissues and harden blood vessel walls.

    If you regularly consume too much alcohol or have an alcohol dependency, seek help to reduce the amount you drink or stop altogether. Drinking alcohol in excess can raise blood pressure.

    If you have risk factors for hypertension, you can take steps now to lower your risk for the condition and its complications.

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    High Blood Pressure Risks

    Advancing age and a family history of heart disease increase your chances of developing high blood pressure. Other risks include eating an unhealthy diet that contains lots of salt, not exercising regularly, smoking, and drinking too much alcohol.

    Obesity and diabetes also raise your risk of developing high blood pressure.

    Early Warning Sign: Elevated Blood Pressure

    What causes high blood pressure in children?

    An elevated blood pressure reading means that your blood pressure falls just above the normal level, corresponding to a systolic pressure between 120 and 129 or a diastolic pressure of 80 or less. The new guidelines eliminate the previous category of prehypertension. About one-fourth of Americans have elevated levels and they have two times the risk of heart disease compared with those who have lower blood pressures. Lifestyle changes can help many people with prehypertension lower their blood pressure.

    Causes

    Factors that increase your blood pressure can cause elevated levels. Medications such as birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers, and some prescription drugs may cause a temporary rise in blood pressure. The buildup of fatty deposits in the arteries can also lead to prehypertension. Other conditions that may lead to prehypertension include the following:

    • Obstructive sleep apnea
    • Thyroid disease

    Symptoms

    There are usually no symptoms with elevated blood pressure. The only way to keep track of your blood pressure is to visit your doctor regularly and have your blood pressure checked.

    Treatment

    • Losing weight if overweight or obese
    • Eating a healthy, low-salt diet
    • Exercise regularly
    • Quit smoking

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    High Blood Pressure Facts

    What every adult should know about high blood pressure, or hypertension

    There’s a good reason why every doctor’s appointment starts with a blood pressure check. While one in three American adults has high blood pressure, about 20% of people are unaware that they have it because it is largely symptomless.

    In fact, most people find out they have high blood pressure during a routine office visit.

    Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as the heart pumps blood. High blood pressure, also referred to as hypertension, is when that force is too high and begins harming the body. If left untreated, it willl eventually cause damage to the heart and blood vessels.

    Your blood pressure is measured in two numbers: The top systolic blood pressure measures the force pushing against artery walls when the heart is contracting. The bottom diastolic blood pressure measures pressure in the arteries when the heart is resting between beats.

    Normal blood pressure levels are 120 mmHg/80 mmHg or lower. At risk levels are 120-139 mmHg/80-89 mmHg. Readings of 140 mmHg/90 mmHg or higher are defined as high blood pressure.

    Here are six other things you should know about high blood pressure.

    What Are The Different Types Of High Blood Pressure

    There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure.:

    • Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older.
    • Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat that condition or stop taking the medicines that are causing it.

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    Tools For Women Managing High Blood Pressure

    If you struggle with high blood pressure, it is essential to keep a daily log, including blood pressure levels, exercise, water intake, and meals.

    This data will help you and your doctor create individualized plans and goals to address your hypertension.

    Another great tool is the Diabetes Freedom Program.

    George Reilly created this safe and natural program to address weight issues, high blood sugar levels, and hypertension.

    The Diabetes Freedom Program takes a realistic approach to food, exercise, and healing.

    George Reillys innovative program includes The Metabolism Boosting Blueprint, which can help you clean up your arteries and control your blood pressure.

    What Is A Normal Blood Pressure For Women

    Does Gluten Cause High Blood Pressure?

    Healthy blood pressure for women is under 120/80 mmHg.

    You may be asking yourself, what do these numbers mean?

    You have a prehypertensive reading if your systolic number is between 100 and 119.

    Those with a diastolic reading of 80 to 89 may be at risk for high blood pressure if they dont take steps to improve their diet or begin exercising more often.

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    High Blood Pressure Symptoms

    While high blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms, some people may experience headaches, nose bleeds, and anxiety when their numbers are high, Laffin says. “We have to really tease out if it’s a symptom causing blood pressure elevation or blood pressure elevation causing symptoms,” he says.

    For example, “a headache can raise your blood pressure because your body responds to pain by elevating blood pressure,” he says. High blood pressure can also cause a headache.

    Some symptoms such as chest pain, back pain, or vision changes, when they occur with a blood pressure of 180/120 mm Hg or higher, may point to a hypertensive emergency. These are signs of end-organ damage and you should call 911 or get to the emergency room immediately, the American Heart Association warns.

    A high blood pressure crisis may cause other symptoms too, including:

    • Severe headache

    What Causes Hypertension

    The causes depend on the type of hypertension: primary and secondary. Sometimes the blood pressure may suddenly increase, with or without any history of hypertension. These sudden spikes typically last for a short time and are called sudden high blood pressure or hypertensive urgency. The blood pressure may often return to normal after a while.

    Primary or essential hypertension

    In most adults, there is no identifiable cause for hypertension. Primary or essential hypertension is not caused by a disease or health condition.

    Primary hypertension can result due to multiple factors:

    • Genetics
    • Physical changes in the body due to age
    • Salt sensitivity

    Secondary hypertension

    In some people, hypertension is caused by an underlying health condition. This is called secondary hypertension and tends to appear suddenly. Secondary hypertension causes higher blood pressure than primary hypertension.

    Secondary hypertension is caused by specific conditions and their complications, such as

    • Kidney disease

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    What Is Arbs Medication

    Angiotensin receptor blockers prevent the actions of angiotensin II on the arteries. This means the arteries stay more open and blood pressure is lowered. ARBs can take a few weeks to work. Side effects can include dizziness, muscle cramps, insomnia, and elevated potassium levels. As with ACE inhibitors, women who are pregnant, planning to get pregnant, or breastfeeding should not take ARBs.

    What Makes A Womans Blood Pressure High

    What Causes High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)?

    Many factors can contribute to women having higher than normal blood pressure, such as anxiety, stress, lack of sleep, hormone changes during menstruation, pregnancy, genetics, and eating habits.

    Alcohol and tobacco use are also related to elevated blood pressure.

    Chronic health conditions such as kidney disease or diabetes can result in high blood pressure too.

    If youre worried about your health, it may be time for a checkup at the doctors office.

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