What Medications Are Used To Treat High Blood Pressure
Four classes of high blood pressure medications are considered first line when starting treatment. Sometimes other medications are coupled with these first-line drugs to better control your high blood pressure. First-line drug pressure lowering medications are:
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors block the production the angiotensin II hormone, which the body naturally uses to control blood pressure. When angiotensin II is blocked, your blood vessels dont narrow. Examples: lisinopril , enalapril , captopril .
- Angiotensin II receptor blockers block this same hormone from binding with receptors in the blood vessels. ARBs work the same way as ACE inhibitors to keep blood vessels from narrowing. Examples: metoprolol , valsartan , losartan .
- Calcium channel blockers prevent calcium from entering the muscle cells of your heart and blood vessels, allowing these vessels to relax. Examples: amlodipine , nifedipine , diltiazem .
- Diuretics flush excess sodium from your body, reducing the amount of fluid in your blood. Diuretics are often used with other high blood pressure medicines, sometimes in one combined pill. Examples: indapamide, hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide.
What Causes High Blood Pressure In Women
1 How does the blood pressure come about? The heart cycle goes through two phases: the pumping phase and the filling phase . Correspondingly, systolic and diastolic pressures build up in the vessels.
2 The systolic pressure arises when the heart contracts and pumps the blood into the ship. The diastolic pressure results when the heart expands again to refill with blood.
3 In healthy people, the pressure reacts flexibly to the requirements of the body through increased cardiac output and narrow or wide positioning of the resistance vessels. Thus, sufficient circulation is always guaranteed, such as during physical activity. More on blood pressure regulation at the bottom.
4 The blood pressure is not a constant size, daily fluctuations are normal. During the night, the blood pressure drops. The differences between people with normal and increased stress, especially in the average values during the day and at night .
5 Especially with older people, but not only with them, with decreasing elasticity of the arteries or arteriosclerosis, but the systolic blood pressure can also increase more pronounced, while the diastolic slightly sink or remains low .
However, typical hypertension, in which both systolic and diastolic pressure tends to increase, develops very frequently with increasing age.
What Is Normal Blood Pressure For Senior Citizens
Your blood pressure fluctuates throughout the day. Its lowest when you sleep but rises when youre active, excited, or stressed out. This is normal. However, its stable most of the time and should be under 120/80 mmHg. Lower is better, but very low blood pressure for elderly people is also an issue because it can make them feel lightheaded and contribute to falls.
|Higher than 120
The values above are for the general population. What should an elderly persons blood pressure be? Senior citizens differ from younger people in many ways. Age, frailty, other diseases, and the medication an older person takes all influence the approach to treatment.
When should we start treating high blood pressure for older adults? The most common threshold for beginning medications is 130/80 mmHg.
Overmedication of seniors is a serious problem. Treating multiple diseases, each with its own set of medications, can add up to over ten different pills per day, and every one of them can have side effects. Therefore, weighing the pros and cons of treating high blood pressure in seniors for every individual patient is necessary.
Too much medication can also cause orthostatic hypotension, that is, a temporary drop in blood pressure upon standing up. This can, in turn, lead to dizziness and cause falls. If overmedication is the cause, we have to rethink the doses. If the issue persists, consider getting a medical alert system.
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Classification Of Blood Pressure
Blood pressure in adults is classified as normal, elevated blood pressure, stage 1 hypertension, or stage 2 hypertension.
However, the higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk of complicationseven within the normal blood pressure rangeso these limits are somewhat arbitrary.
Stage 2 high blood pressure
140 or higher
90 or higher
* People who have systolic and diastolic blood pressures in different categories are considered to be in the higher blood pressure category.
Information is based on the 2017 Guidelines for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults issued by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association.
A hypertensive urgency is diastolic blood pressure that is more than 120 mm Hg but has not yet caused any organ damage that is apparent to people or their doctors. A hypertensive urgency usually does not cause symptoms.
A hypertensive emergency is a particularly severe form of high blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure is at least 120 mm Hg, and there is evidence of progressive damage in one or more vital organs , often accompanied by a variety of symptoms. Hypertensive emergencies are uncommon, but they are several times more common among blacks than among whites, among men than among women, and among people in lower socioeconomic groups than among those in higher socioeconomic groups. If untreated, a hypertensive emergency can be fatal.
Medication To Lower Blood Pressure
If you change your lifestyle and your blood pressure is still high, see your doctor. They may prescribe medication. Tell your doctor what other medications you are taking. This will ensure there are no harmful interactions. Take the medication as directed. Check your blood pressure often to make sure it stays at a healthy level.
There are several different kinds of blood pressure medications. The most common types of medications include:
- Diuretics: These water pills will cause you to urinate more frequently. This will flush sodium from your system. They are often used with other medications, sometimes in the same pill.
- Beta Blockers: These slow your heartbeat. Your heart pumps less blood through your bodys blood vessels. This lowers your blood pressure.
- ACE Inhibitors: ACE stands for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme. These medications block the hormone that narrows blood vessels. If your blood vessels are wider, your blood pressure will be lower.
- Vasodilators: These medicines relax blood vessel wall muscles to lower blood pressure.
Your doctor may prescribe one or more of these medications. They will monitor your blood pressure to make sure it stays within healthy levels. Many medications have side effects. Tell your doctor about any changes since you started the medication.
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Who Is Affected By Hypertension
According to the Robert Koch Institute Berlin, one-third of adult Us have hypertension, i.e., pressure values over 140/90 mmHg.
However, 60% of the two-thirds blood pressure healthy already have values that are not optimal or just below the currently set general limit of 140/90 mmHg .
Even if these, in particular, the latter only marginally, even as high normal values often do not apply as requiring treatment: completely irrelevant they are not. Therefore, they should get checked from time to time.
I already had high blood pressure. I have hypertension. And I think the chemo was just too much for my kidneys. And they went into failure. And that was October 19th of 2018. And the doctor rushed me right to the hospital
What Causes Of High Blood Pressure In Women
Hypertension usually runs asymptomatic for a long time but develops at the transition to the second half of life. It is a time that almost always stands for the menopause of women.
Symptoms more visible in this phase of life, such as nervousness, sleep disturbances, mood swings, focus problems, headaches, dizziness, and the diminished result, are therefore more likely to be attributed to hormonal changes than to hypertension. But occasionally he can get the reason.
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Excessive Salt Raises Blood Pressure
Too much sodium can cause water retention that puts increased pressure on your heart and blood vessels. People with high blood pressure and those at a high risk for developing hypertension, including adults over 50 and black men and women, should have no more than 1,500 milligrams of sodium daily of salt.
Even people with normal levels should eat salt in moderation. Stick to no more than 2,300 mg of sodium , per day.
Most dietary sodium comes from processed foods. Rules of thumb are to choose foods with 5% or less of the daily value of sodium per serving and opt for fresh poultry, fish and lean meats, rather than canned, smoked or processed. Similarly, fresh or frozen vegetables are better than canned.
A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that if people cut just 1/2 teaspoon of salt per day, it could help lower the number of new cases of heart disease per year by up to 120,000.
Further, potassium found in foods like sweet potatoes, spinach, bananas, oranges, low-fat milk and halibut can counterbalance the pressure-increasing effects of sodium by helping to rid the body of excess sodium.
Causes And Risk Factors
You may be at an increased risk for high blood pressure if you smoke, areoverweight, eat a diet thats low on produce and fiber and/or high in fatand salt, drink alcohol to excess, live with chronic stress or dont getmuch physical activity. Some causes of hypertension cannot becontrolledincluding your genes and your race . Aging also plays a role. Even if you do not have hypertensionby age 55 to 65, your lifetime risk for developing it is a whopping 90percent.
In one Johns Hopkins study of 975 older women and men with hypertension,healthy lifestyle steps helped 40 percent stop taking blood pressuremedications. Other research has shown that lifestyle changes can lower therisk for hypertension in African-Americans and others at an increasedgenetic risk.
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Risk Of High Blood Pressure In Women
1 The answer to the question of how high blood pressure arises is difficult: risk factors such as heavyweight, lack of exercise and stress are well-known facts. But while one gets high blood pressure early on, the other does not have any problems at first. Why it can vary from person to person here is still unclear.
2 Partly it is probably due to the genes. High blood pressure and strokes with close relatives siblings, parents, grandparents suggest a certain predisposition to hypertension. An exact picture of the hereditary factors does not yet have the research.
3 Also, interactions between genes, environment, and lifestyle can promote various diseases. It also seems to be the case with high blood pressure. In short: heredity, of course, age and gender play a relevant role.
4 When predisposed to high blood pressure, certain lifestyle factors can more readily influence disease development. The more risks that come together, the higher the likelihood that hypertension will occur and conversely, a healthy lifestyle can have a beneficial effect on the risk of disease.
5 Only about 10 to 15% of hypertensive patients have secondary hypertension. That is, another condition is responsible for hypertension, such as the kidneys, adrenals, or thyroid gland. Some aspects are below , read more in the Diagnostics chapter of this guide.
Wrong Medication Or Wrong Dose
For each person theres an ideal combination of medications and dosages that would best control their hypertension. Some people havent yet received that ideal combination. Its important to work with a doctor who is familiar with the range of medications and who knows what works best for each individual.
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How Can I Avoid The Causes Of Sudden Blood Pressure
As people with hypertension, we experience a sudden rise in high blood pressure, causing short-term dizziness and depression. This event is often associated with certain daily activities. Small changes in the way we do things will greatly reduce the risk of a head attack and avoid some possible serious consequences.
How To Check Blood Pressure
1 From the middle of the thirties, one should check the blood pressure from time to time, with familial stress with cardiovascular diseases also earlier. It would be even better to regularly take advantage of the cardiovascular check-ups offered free of charge.
2 The health insurance companies currently pay them every two years, starting at the age of 35 The blood pressure measurement is an integral part. Also, pharmacies also offer blood pressure measurements.
3 In many cases, the result will be healthy. However, if too high blood pressure is measured, the next question is: Is there high blood pressure? The diagnosis is usually fast. Further investigations follow suspicion of secondary hypertension or sequelae.
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What’s The Impact Of Having High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases such as:
- coronary heart disease – where the main arteries that supply your heart become clogged up with plaques
- strokes – a serious condition where the blood supply to your brain is interrupted
- heart attacks – a serious condition where the blood supply to part of your heart is blocked
Diabetes and kidney disease are also linked to high blood pressure complications.
Can High Blood Pressure Affect Pregnancy
High blood pressure complicates about 10% of all pregnancies. There are several different types of high blood pressure during pregnancy and range from mild to serious. The forms of high blood pressure during pregnancy include:
Chronic hypertension: High blood pressure which is present prior to pregnancy.
Chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia: Preeclampsia, which develops in someone who has chronic hypertension .
Gestational hypertension: High blood pressure in the latter part of pregnancy, but no other signs or symptoms of preeclampsia are present. Some women will later develop preeclampsia, while others probably have high blood pressure before the pregnancy.
Preeclampsia: This is found in the latter half of pregnancy and results in hypertension, protein in the urine and generalized swelling in the mother. It can affect other organs in the body and cause seizures .
Your blood pressure will be checked regularly during prenatal appointments, but if you have concerns about your blood pressure, be sure to talk with your provider.
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Can A High Blood Pressure Turn Into Prehypertension
Some doctors refer to slightly elevated blood pressure as prehypertension. Elevated blood pressure will likely turn into high blood pressure unless you make lifestyle changes, such as getting more exercise and eating healthier foods. Anyone can have elevated blood pressure, even children, especially if theyre overweight or obese.
Your Best Protection Is Knowledge Management And Prevention
- Know your numbers The best way to know if you have high blood pressure is tohave your blood pressure checked.
- Understand the symptoms and risks Learn what factors could make you more likely to develop high blood pressure and put you at risk for serious medical problems.
- Make changes that matter Take steps to reduce your risk and manage your blood pressure. Make heart-healthy lifestyle changes, take any medication as prescribed and work in partnership with your doctor.
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How Can You Reduce Your Risk Of High Blood Pressure
Fortunately, there are certain things you can do to help reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure. These include the following:
- Eat right: A healthy diet is an important step in keeping your blood pressure normal. The DASH diet emphasizes adding fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to your diet while reducing the amount of sodium. Since it is rich in fruits and vegetables, which are naturally lower in sodium than many other foods, the DASH diet makes it easier to eat less salt and sodium.
- Keep a healthy weight: Going hand-in-hand with a proper diet is keeping a healthy weight. Since being overweight increases your blood pressure, losing excess weight with diet and exercise will help lower your blood pressure to healthier levels.
- Cut down on salt: The recommendation for salt in your diet is to have less than 2,400 milligrams of sodium a day . To prevent hypertension, you should keep your salt intake below this level. Don’t forget that most restaurant foods and many processed and frozen foods contain high levels of salt. Use herbs and spices that do not contain salt in recipes to flavor your food do not add salt at the table.
- Keep active: Even simple physical activities, such as walking, can lower your blood pressure .
- Drinkalcoholin moderation: Having more than one drink a day and two drinks a day can raise blood pressure.
Is 140 Over 78 A Good Blood Pressure
For 140/78 to be good, both numbers must fit into the normal category above. Otherwise, it will fall into other categories of High Blood Pressure. Systolic reading of 140 is in the High Blood Pressure Stage 1 range. Diastolic reading of 78 is in the Normal range. Therefore, 140/78 is High Blood Pressure Stage 1.
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Symptoms Of Sudden High Blood Pressure
Unlike traditional high blood pressure, where there are no visual symptoms until major damage has occurred, sudden high blood pressure alerts you immediately.
- Weakness or numbness in arms, legs, face
- Mentality changes such as anxiety, fatigue, confusion, restlessness
In extreme cases of sudden high blood pressure, there may be bleeding from damaged blood vessels, blindness from ruptured retina nerves or vessels, and possibly seizures.