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What Factors Affect Blood Pressure

You Must Stabilize Your Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure and Factors affecting Blood pressure

Without properly balanced cholesterol and blood-sugar levels, your heart valves become restricted with plaque buildup, and that leads to a damaged and unhealthy heart. All this combined begins to affect other parts of your body and internal organs because they are starved of needed oxygen and blood that is pumped to them by your heart. After years of unhealthy eating, unbalanced cholesterol and blood-sugar levels all over the place, your overall heart health begins to deteriorate. In worse cases, not protecting your heart health can lead to major damage resulting in the need for heart surgery or a heart transplant. In the worst case, deteriorated hearth health can lead to death.

And it gets worse with each passing year, not only making it harder to avoid heart disease but actually causing you to GET A HEART ATTACK OR STROKEâno matter how hard you try to avoid it.

What Do Blood Pressure Numbers Mean

Blood pressure is measured using two numbers:

The first number, called systolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats.

The second number, called diastolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart rests between beats.

If the measurement reads 120 systolic and 80 diastolic, you would say, 120 over 80, or write, 120/80 mmHg.

What Are The Complications Of Uncontrolled Hypertension

  • Chest pain, also called angina.
  • Heart attack, which occurs when the blood supply to the heart is blocked and heart muscle cells die from lack of oxygen. The longer the blood flow is blocked, the greater the damage to the heart.
  • Heart failure, which occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to other vital body organs.
  • Irregular heart beat which can lead to a sudden death.

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Invasive Or Noninvasive Arterial Pressure Monitoring

Arterial pressure is a key determinant of organ perfusion and is routinely measured in critically ill patients, either noninvasively or invasively. Noninvasive measurements can reliably be used in less severely ill patients but are unfortunately less reliable in patients with shock, when accuracy of measurements is most important.9 For example, an overestimate of 510 mm Hg will have minimal impact on patient management if real mean arterial pressure is 80 mm Hg, but could have important consequences if MAP is 55 mm Hg. Hence invasive arterial pressure monitoring is recommended in patients with circulatory failure.5

George J. Crystal, Paul M. Heerdt, in, 2013

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Bivariate Linear Regression Analysis

The results of bivariate regression analysis of factors affecting the BP variability are shown in .

Relationship Between Age and BP Variability

The SDs of both the 24-h systolic BP and 24-h diastolic BP increased significantly with age but the increase was more marked with SBP . The VC of 24-h SBP also increased significantly with increasing age, but the age-dependent increase in the VC of DBP was less than the increase in the SD . The SD and the VC of daytime SBP and DBP increased with age . This trend was also observed for nighttime SBP and DBP .

Age-dependent changes in 24-h blood pressure variability. A: SD, standard deviation. B: VC, variation coefficient .

Age-Dependent Changes in Other Variables

Both the 24-h SBP and the 24-h DBP increased with increasing age. The 24-h HR and the SD of 24-h HR decreased with increasing age . Pulse pressure increased with increasing age . The magnitude of the nocturnal fall in SBP and DBP decreased with increasing age. The difference between the screening SBP and the ambulatory SBP increased with increasing age .

Relationship Between Ambulatory BP Level and BP Variability

The SD of 24-h SBP increased with increase in 24-h SBP. The SD of 24-h DBP also increased with increase in 24-h DBP . However, the VCs of 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP were not related to increases in BP . These trends were also observed for the SD and VC of daytime BP and nighttime BP .

Normative Levels Of Arterial Pressure In Humans

ABP is a quantitative trait because values vary with age, sex, body weight, and physical activity of the individual. A pressure considered normal in one individual may be judged abnormal in another. ABP increases with age for both genders and generally is lower in premenopausal women than in men of the same age. ABP increases with increased body mass such that some hypertensive subjects can normalize their ABP by losing only 510% of body mass. Once hypertension is evident, gender differences tend to be obscured .

Figure 11. Variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with age as function of gender and race for subjects in the U.S. population, over the age of 18 years. For both genders, SBP exhibits a steady increase with age. As discussed, this SBP age-dependence partly reflects increased rigidity of conduit and smaller arteries with aging. In contrast, DBP tends to exhibit little increase beyond the age of 5059 years for both genders. Note the significant increase in pulse pressure after the age of 50 years for both genders and races examined.

Figure 12. Illustration of the extreme spread of systolic blood pressure . In part, the distribution spread reflects age variation, as shown in Figure 11. As reported in the JNC7, SBPs greater than 115 mmHg are associated with 60% increase of cerebrovascular disease in subjects and nearly 50% ischemic heart disease.

Daniel De Backer, in, 2020

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What Causes High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is the measure of the force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. The heart pumps blood into blood vessels, which carry the blood throughout the body. High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is dangerous because it makes the heart work harder to pump blood out to the body and contributes to hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis, to stroke, kidney disease, and to heart failure.

Research Design And Setting

Factors Affecting Blood Pressure

Our sample was 305 hypertensives visiting a family practice in Rize, a Northern city in the Black Sea Region of Turkey. Only hypertensive patients receiving medicines for blood pressure control included in the study and patients with other chronic conditions were excluded. Research was completed between December 2017 to April 2018. Formal permission was obtained from Directorate of Health in Rize. All participants gave informed verbal consent. Participants completed the main questionnaire and The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. We designed the main questionnaire including 18 items. These items are about age, gender, marital status, educational status, socioeconomic status, monthly household income, number of households, households , place of living, relationship with family members, relationship with friends, alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise, diet, psychiatric complaints, traumatic life events, blood pressure situations. The questionnaire and HAD scale were completed face-to-face and conducted by the authors.

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Can High Blood Pressure Cause Nosebleeds

According to the American HeartAssociation, no, high blood pressure does not cause nosebleeds. In a case of hypertensive crisis, however, when blood pressure reaches 180/120 mm Hg or higher, nosebleeds can be a symptom. If your blood pressure is unusually high and you are having a nosebleed, headache, or other symptoms, retest in five minutes. If your blood pressure stays high, call 911.

Surprising Factors That Affect Blood Pressure Readings

In order to lower blood pressure, you must first figure out whats driving it up. Some people are genetically predisposed to high blood pressure while others experience high blood pressure solely due to lifestyle factors. No matter what, it helps to recognize factors that affect blood pressure readings. Here are some that may surprise you:

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Volume Of Circulating Blood

How High Blood Affects Your Body

Volume of circulating blood is the amount of blood moving through the body. Increased venous return stretches the walls of the atria where specialized baroreceptors are located. Baroreceptors are pressure-sensing receptors. As the atrial baroreceptors increase their rate of firing and as they stretch due to the increased blood pressure, the cardiac centre responds by increasing sympathetic stimulation and inhibiting parasympathetic stimulation to increase HR. The opposite is also true.

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Invasive Arterial Pressure Monitoring

Measurement of arterial blood pressure by an indwelling vascular catheter is more accurate than other methods of measurement. Moreover, a graphic display of arterial pressure can be viewed in real time to provide diagnostic and therapeutic information that is not available with other techniques . Invasive pressure monitoring is of greatest value in conditions in which large changes in arterial pressure occur quickly, such as shock, or when intravenous vasodilators are used for hypertensive emergencies. Another advantage of invasive arterial pressure monitoring is that arterial blood gases can be drawn frequently through the catheter. This is especially important in patients with severe acidbase disorders or acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation.

Can Eating Cause Your Blood Pressure To Go Lower Or Higher

If your doctor has suggested measuring your blood pressure at home, its likely theyve recommended you take your morning measurement before eating. Thats because the reading will often be lower than is typical following a meal.

When you eat, your body directs extra blood to the stomach and small intestine. At the same time, blood vessels that are distant from your digestive system narrow, and your heart beats harder and faster.

This action maintains the blood flow and blood pressure to your brain, extremities, and elsewhere in your body.

If your blood vessels and heart dont respond correctly to the extra blood directed to your digestive system, blood pressure everywhere but the digestive system will decrease. This is called postprandial hypotension.

Postprandial hypotension can result in:

If youre monitoring your blood pressure at home, there are many factors that might affect the reading, including:

To make sure youre getting accurate information, bring your home blood pressure monitor to your doctors office once a year. You can compare its readings with the readings from your doctors equipment.

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Regulation Of Blood Pressure

Recall that the body is always trying to achieve and maintain hemostasis, so several different mechanisms come into play when regulating blood pressure:

  • Chemoreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch sense increased carbon dioxide, increased hydrogen ions and decreased oxygen which triggers the SNS to increase BP
  • Baroreceptors located in the carotid sinuses and aortic arch sense changes in mean arterial pressure and send messages to the brain. When MAP is high, these baroreceptors send more and more signals, the SNS is suppressed and the PNS takes over causing decreased BP and HRin other words, the baroreceptors tell the SNS to back off and tell the PNS to put on the brakes. When MAP is low and these baroreceptors are triggered less, it sends signals to the SNS to say, Hey! Blood pressure is low, do your thang!
  • The SNS causes vasoconstriction, faster respiratory rate, faster heart rate and increased contractility. All of these things are going to play a role in increasing blood pressure.
  • The endocrine system sends chemical messengers that affect the diameter of the arterioles and blood pressure.
  • Hormones that increase BP: vasopressin, angiotensin II, and some prostaglandins antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone work to maintain fluid balance to maintain optimal blood pressure levels
  • Hormones that decrease BP: nitric oxide, histamine and some prostaglandins

Blood Pressure Cuff Is Too Small Or Too Big

08 Factors that Affect Blood pressure

It is very important to use the correct size of blood pressure measurement cuff on the upper arm as a lot of errors in reading can occur due to incorrect cuff. Studies have shown that using a too small blood pressure measurement cuff may cause patient’s systolic blood pressure measurement to increase. And too large a cuff may cause a lower than actual blood pressure measurement.

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Physiological Factors Affecting Blood Pressure:

  • Age,
  • All the above physiological factors have explained in the following:

    1. Age:Arterial blood pressure increases as age advances.

    Systolic pressure in different age:

    • Newborn- 70mmHg

    Diastolic Pressure in different age:

    • Newborn- 40mmHg
    • At 80 years- 95mmHg

    2. Sex:In females, up to the period of menopause, blood pressure is 5mmHg less than in males of the same age. After menopause, the pressure in females becomes equal to that in males of the same age.

    3. Body Built:In the case of obese persons, the pressure is more than in lean persons.

    4. After Meals:Blood pressure increase for a few hours after meals due to an increase in cardiac output.

    5. Sleep:During deep sleep, there is a fall in blood pressure by 15-20mmHg.

    6. Diurnal Variation:Normally blood pressure is slightly low in the early morning. It slowly increases and reaches the maximum level at noon. It becomes low in the evening.

    7. Emotional Conditions:During excitement or anxiety, blood pressure is increased due to the release of adrenaline.

    8. After Exercise:Systolic pressure increases by 20-30mmHg after moderate exercise. Normally diastolic pressure is not affected in moderate exercise. After severe exercise, systolic pressure rises by 40-50mmHg above the normal level. But, the diastolic pressure decreases in severe exercise.

    Regulation of Blood Pressure:

    The body has four regulatory mechanisms to maintain blood pressure within normal limits:

    Genetics And Family History

    When members of a family pass traits from one generation to another through genes, that process is called heredity.

    Genes likely play some role in high blood pressure, heart disease, and other related conditions. However, it is also likely that people with a family history of high blood pressure share common environments and other potential factors that increase their risk.

    The risk for high blood pressure can increase even more when heredity combines with unhealthy lifestyle choices, such as smoking and eating an unhealthy diet.

    Find out more about genetics and disease on CDCs Office of Public Health Genomics website.

    Family health history is a record of the diseases and health conditions people in your family have had. Family health history is a useful tool for understanding health risks and preventing disease. To help people collect and organize information on their family history, CDCs Office of Public Health Genomics collaborated with the Surgeon General and other federal agencies to develop a Web-based tool called My Family Health Portrait.

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    What Affects Blood Pressure

    Blood pressure is the measure of the force that the blood applies on the walls of the artery. Your heartbeat refers to how many times your heartbeats in a minute. Information about your blood pressure and heartbeat enables your healthcare provider to make important decisions about your cardiovascular system and overall health. Your heart rate is normal if your resting heart rate is anywhere between 60 and 100 beats per minute, whereas the systolic blood pressure should be less than 120mmHg and diastolic pressure should be less than 80mmHg. Your blood pressure can change due to many factors. Let’s discuss more about it.

    The Role Of Venoconstriction In Resistance Blood Pressure And Flow

    sturdydesignhope: Chemical Factors That Increase Blood Pressure

    As previously discussed, vasoconstriction of an artery or arteriole decreases the radius, increasing resistance and pressure, but decreasing flow. Venoconstriction, on the other hand, has a very different outcome. The walls of veins are thin but irregular thus, when the smooth muscle in those walls constricts, the lumen becomes more rounded. The more rounded the lumen, the less surface area the blood encounters, and the less resistance the vessel offers. Vasoconstriction increases pressure within a vein as it does in an artery, but in veins, the increased pressure increases flow. Recall that the pressure in the atria, into which the venous blood will flow, is very low, approaching zero for at least part of the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle. Thus, venoconstriction increases the return of blood to the heart. Another way of stating this is that venoconstriction increases the preload or stretch of the cardiac muscle and increases contraction.

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    Does Garlic Lower Blood Pressure

    Research shows garlic supplements can lower systolic blood pressure by about 10 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by about 8 mm Hg. Garlic contains anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties via its primary component, allicin. When a clove of garlic is crushed or chopped, allicin is released, and the health benefits begin. Allicin has been shown to protect against atherosclerosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol, making it a great regular addition to your diet.


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