What Causes Isolated Diastolic Hypertension
Possible causes of high diastolic blood pressure include:
Some of the dietary supplements that may help lower blood pressure are:
- Minerals such as calcium, potassium, and magnesium
- Supplements that can widen your blood vessels, like cocoa, garlic, and L-arginine
- Flaxseeds, fish oil supplements, and omega-3 fatty acids
What Does Diastolic Hypertension Mean
Having high diastolic blood pressure is a sign that your blood vessels have become less elastic, hardened, and scarred. Blood pressure is not a static reading as it tends to fluctuate throughout the day with the normal rate of diastolic blood pressure ranging between 60 to 80 mmHg.
Having flexible blood vessels allows your body to appropriately manage oscillations in blood pressure. However, when your blood vessels are rigid, the chances of vessel rupture or obstruction is more likely to occur.
What Time Of Day Should I Check My Blood Pressure
Many experts suggest recording blood pressures that are taken over an extended time before diagnosing high blood pressure.
You should also know that your blood pressure will be different throughout the day. It tends to be highest in the morning and lower at night.
Your provider may want you to take your blood pressure multiple days a dayusually once in the morning and once in the afternoon or evening. Try to avoid taking it early in the morning right when you wake up or right after dinner.
Instead, try to take your morning reading before your breakfast and your evening reading when you’re getting ready for bed .
Once you decide what time you’ll check your blood pressure, it’s important that you’re consistent. You’ll get the most accurate results and comparisons if you take your blood pressure at about the same time every day.
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What Are The Health Risks Of High Blood Pressure
Recent studies have shown that both high systolic blood pressure and high diastolic blood pressure pose health risks:
- High systolic reading: Increases the risk of heart disease. Systolic blood pressure is linked to heart attacks, heart failure, kidney disease and overall mortality.
- High diastolic reading: Increases the risk of aortic disease. The aorta carries blood and oxygen from the heart to the abdomen and chest. People with an elevated diastolic reading are more prone to developing abdominal aortic aneurysm, an enlargement of the aorta that can lead to rupture and a high risk of death.
Side Effects Of High Blood Pressure
Dangers of untreated high blood pressure include stroke, heart attack, heart failure, vision loss, kidney failure, vascular dementia and sexual dysfunction, says Dr. Desai. Its one of the top risk factors for developing atrial fibrillation, which is the most common heart rhythm disorder worldwide and can lead to stroke, heart failure and reduced quality of life.
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What Are The Possible Signs And Symptoms Of Low Diastolic Blood Pressure
A diastolic blood pressure of somewhere between 60 and 90 mm Hg is good in older people. Once your blood pressure reading plummets to below 60 mm Hg, you may faint.
Many older people with low DBP get tired or dizzy and have frequent falls. Obviously, none of that is good news for people who are older and who may have brittle bones and poor healing. Common signs and symptoms of low DBP may include
- Feeling giddy
Studies have reported that very low DBP is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. Importantly, a study found that low DBP was associated with an increased likelihood of coronary heart disease events and mortality. Studies have explained that if individuals have DBP that is too low, there might not be enough blood flow to the heart muscle itself. This could lead to heart attacks or weakening of the heart muscle.
Why Diastolic Blood Pressure Is Important
Typically, for people over 50, more attention is directed to the higher number, systolic blood pressure, as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease 4. Therefore, why is diastolic pressure important?
Diastolic pressure is important because an elevated diastolic pressure may be used to make a diagnosis of high blood pressure. In addition, elevated diastolic pressure means there is an increased risk of developing elevated systolic blood pressure as a person ages.
Recent studies have researched people ranging from 40 to 89 years of age. They found for each 10 mmHg diastolic number increase in blood pressure, the risk of death from ischemic heart disease and stroke doubles.
Ischemic heart disease is a term given to heart problems that are caused by narrowed heart arteries.
On the other hand, if diastolic blood pressure is too low, meaning coronary arteries arent getting enough blood pressure, the heart is going to lack oxygen and blood. This is called ischemia and may weaken the heart over time which can lead to heart failure.
The coronary arteries which surround the aortic valve in the heart only get blood when the aortic valve closes, and this happens in diastole 5.
What is diastole? Diastole is the part of the cardiac cycle when the heart is relaxed between beats and refills with blood.
Diastolic blood pressure is measured at the moment diastole is occurring 6.
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How Do You Treat Low Diastolic Blood Pressure
There are some things you can do to help prevent and manage low diastolic pressure. Try to keep your salt intake to between 1.5 and 4 grams per day. Eat a heart-healthy diet. Drink enough fluids and avoid alcohol, which can increase your risk for dehydration. Stay physically active and start an exercise program.
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Reduce And Manage Stress
The body releases chemicals and hormones that can narrow the blood vessels temporarily when we are under stress. Stress also gets our heart beating faster. Long-term stress is thought to increase the risk of getting heart problems, such as stroke and heart attacks. Taking time to relax and practice stress-reducing exercises can be very helpful.
Symptoms Of High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure is known as the silent killer because it typically has no symptoms. In fact, most people dont even realize they have hypertension until their blood pressure is monitored.
Symptoms dont develop until the numbers get very high and organs get damaged, often irreversibly, says Dr. Desai.
If you have severe hypertension, you might notice the below symptoms, some of which were reported by patients in a study in the British Journal of General PracticeGoodhart A. Hypertension from the patients perspective. British Journal of General Practice. 2016 66:570. :
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How Blood Pressure Is Measured
A doctor or nurse will measure your blood pressure with a small gauge attached to an inflatable cuff. It’s simple and painless.
The person taking your blood pressure wraps the cuff around your upper arm. Some cuffs go around the forearm or wrist, but often they aren’t as accurate.
Your doctor or nurse will use a stethoscope to listen to the blood moving through your artery.
Theyâll inflate the cuff to a pressure higher than your systolic blood pressure, and it will tighten around your arm. Then theyâll release it. As the cuff deflates, the first sound they hear through the stethoscope is the systolic blood pressure. It sounds like a whooshing noise. The point where this noise goes away marks the diastolic blood pressure.
In a blood pressure reading, the systolic number always comes first, and then the diastolic number. For example, your numbers may be “120 over 80” or written as 120/80.
Endocrine And Kidney Conditions
An underactive thyroid, or hypothyroidism, is one of the more common secondary causes of IDH. As in primary hypertension, the elevated diastolic pressure is the result of excessive arteriolar narrowing.
Hypothyroidism may be suspected in a person with weight gain, fatigue and intolerance to the cold, but blood tests are required to confirm the diagnosis. Endocrine diseases producing high levels of aldosterone, parathyroid hormone or corticosteroids can also cause IDH.
Most diseases that damage the kidney can lead to IDH by reducing the ability of the kidneys to remove fluids from the body or by increasing the production of angiotensin. Renovascular hypertension, due to narrowing of the main artery leading to the kidneys, is another possible cause of IDH.
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When To Consult A Doctor
If a person monitors their blood pressure at home and does not see lower readings despite implementing lifestyle changes, they should contact a medical professional. Doctors can help to determine the underlying cause of their high blood pressure.
A person should seek immediate medical attention if they have two readings of 180/120 mm Hg or higher within 5 minutes, especially if they are experiencing a headache or nosebleed.
Doctors do not associate increased diastolic blood pressure with cardiovascular events in younger individuals.
However, increases in diastolic pressure in those aged
- Bae, E. H., et al. . Chronic kidney disease risk of isolated systolic or diastolic hypertension in young adults: A nationwide sample based-cohort Study.
What Is The Treatment For High Blood Pressure
- losing weight
- limiting your alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks per day for men, or 1 drink per day for women with high blood pressure
However, lifestyle changes may not be enough. Some people also need medication to help reduce blood pressure levels to normal. While medicines are usually very effective at lowering blood pressure, they may cause side effects in some people.
Usually doctors will start a person on a low dose of a medicine and see how it goes. If it doesnt work well enough, or if there are troublesome side effects, other medicines will be used, sometimes in combination, until the blood pressure is controlled. This can take time. Some people will take medicines for life, although others will find that continuing to lose weight and changing their diet reduces the need for medicines.
Someone whose blood pressure is very high or causing symptoms such as headache, or if they have conditions such as heart disease or diabetes, may need urgent treatment with medicines to bring the blood pressure down to normal levels.
The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners recommends that you regularly review with your doctor or specialist any medications you are taking for high blood pressure or high cholesterol to assess the ongoing benefits and risks. For further information, visit the Choosing Wisely Australia website.
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How To Lower Blood Pressure After Eating Too Much Salt
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High Or Low Blood Pressure Complications
High blood pressure doesnt cause symptoms unless youre in hypertensive crisis. Its actually known as a silent killer because it quietly damages your blood vessels and organs, and you may not realize you have it until the damage is done. Unmanaged high blood pressure can lead to:
The good news is that there are things you can do to help prevent blood pressure problems.
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Mean Pressure Gradient Measurements
Mean diastolic pressure gradient is inversely related to MVA that is, the more severe the mitral stenosis, the higher the mean diastolic pressure gradient across the mitral valve. This gradient can be easily measured by pulsed and continuous wave Doppler.2 The best approach for transmitral flow evaluation and gradient determination should be with the transducer at the apex, imaging in four-chamber or two-chamber views. Color flow imaging can be helpful for the assessment of the exact direction of the transmitral flow. The angle between the interrogating beam and the transmitral jet should be 0 degrees.
Gradient can be assessed by pulsed-wave Doppler with the sample volume at the tips of the leaflets or by continuous wave Doppler. By tracing the spectral Doppler-derived diastolic transmitral flow velocity envelope and with the use of built-in algorithms available in most modern ultrasound imaging systems, one can obtain the mean MV gradient . To calculate the mean gradient, the system first calculates instantaneous pressure gradients using the simplified Bernoulli equation and then averages them out:
where P is the mean diastolic transmitral pressure gradient, V is the instantaneous transmitral velocity, and n is the number of instantaneous gradients measured.
Andrew Davies MA PhD DSc, Carl Moores BA BSc MB ChB FRCA, in, 2010
How To Manage High Diastolic Blood Pressure
1. Lifestyle Changes
If you have hypertension or prehypertension, it is advisable to implement the following lifestyle changes:
- Do not smoke
- Adjust to healthy diet fresh vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy products and low salt intake
- Sustain healthy weight
- Exercise regularly at least 30 minutes of moderate activity every day
The doctor might prescribe the following medications:
These are water pills that flush out excess sodium and water from your body and lower your blood pressure. One option is thiazide since it has minimal side effects.
- Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
They make blood vessels widen. This is done by inhibiting the formation of angiotensin hormone.
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
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Get Regular Blood Pressure Checks
If your blood pressure is in the healthy range and you have no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and no personal or family history of high blood pressure, it is still important to have a check at least every two years. Your doctor can also check your blood pressure during routine visits.
If your blood pressure is highnormal , or if you have other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as a personal or family history of high blood pressure, stroke or heart attack, it is best to have it checked more frequently such as every 6 to 12 months or as directed by your doctor. Ask your doctor for advice.
High Blood Pressure And Older Adults
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High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a major health problem that is common in older adults. Your bodys network of blood vessels, known as the vascular system, changes with age. Arteries get stiffer, causing blood pressure to go up. This can be true even for people who have heart-healthy habits and feel just fine. High blood pressure, sometimes called “the silent killer,” often does not cause signs of illness that you can see or feel. Though it affects nearly half of all adults, many may not even be aware they have it.
If high blood pressure isn’t controlled with lifestyle changes and medication, it can lead to serious health problems, including cardiovascular disease such as heart disease and stroke, vascular dementia, eye problems, and kidney disease. The good news is that blood pressure can be controlled in most people.
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