What Is A Pulmonary Hypertension
Abnormally elevated pressure in the pulmonary circulation is referred to as pulmonary hypertension. This condition affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of the heart.
Pulmonary Hypertension Causes
Pulmonary hypertension is caused by changes in the cells that line the pulmonary arteries. These changes cause the walls of the arteries to become stiff and thick, extra tissue may also form. This can reduce or block blood flow through the blood vessels. Increased blood pressure is then caused because it is harder for blood to flow. Pulmonary hypertension can be an associated condition with scleroderma, sarcoidosis, pulmonary embolism, and dermatomyositis.
Pulmonary Hypertension Symptoms
Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may not present themselves for months or years. Later on, symptoms become worse. Symptoms of pulmonary hypertension may include:
Atrial septostomy and transplantation are surgical treatments that may control pulmonary hypertension, if medications are unsuccessful.
What Is Arbs Medication
Angiotensin receptor blockers prevent the actions of angiotensin II on the arteries. This means the arteries stay more open and blood pressure is lowered. ARBs can take a few weeks to work. Side effects can include dizziness, muscle cramps, insomnia, and elevated potassium levels. As with ACE inhibitors, women who are pregnant, planning to get pregnant, or breastfeeding should not take ARBs.
Common Causes Of Hypertension
Health Check Certified By: Dr. Gerald Morris
Heart disease is one of the biggest silent killers globally. Having hypertension means that the pressure in your arteries that pump blood from your heart to the rest of your organs and throughout your body is too great. This abnormal blood pressure is what puts stress on the heart and causes premature death.
High blood pressure is an issue if the systolic blood pressure is over 140-mmHg and the diastolic blood pressure is over 90-mmHg. Here are 15 common causes of hypertension
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How Can You Reduce Your Risk Of High Blood Pressure
Fortunately, there are certain things you can do to help reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure. These include the following:
- Eat right: A healthy diet is an important step in keeping your blood pressure normal. The DASH diet emphasizes adding fruits, vegetables and whole grains to your diet while reducing the amount of sodium. Since its rich in fruits and vegetables, which are naturally lower in sodium than many other foods, the DASH diet makes it easier to eat less salt and sodium.
- Keep a healthy weight: Going hand-in-hand with a proper diet is keeping a healthy weight. Since being overweight increases your blood pressure, losing excess weight with diet and exercise will help lower your blood pressure to healthier levels.
- Cut down on salt: The recommendation for salt in your diet is to have less than 1,500 milligrams of sodium a day . To prevent hypertension, you should keep your salt intake below this level. Don’t forget that most restaurant foods and many processed and frozen foods contain high levels of salt. Use herbs and spices that do not contain salt in recipes to flavor your food do not add salt at the table.
- Keep active: Even simple physical activities, such as walking, can lower your blood pressure .
- Drinkalcoholin moderation: Having more than one drink a day and two drinks a day can raise blood pressure.
How Hypertension Is Diagnosed
Hypertension is usually diagnosed during a routine body checkup. It is advisable to visit a general physician on the off chance that you develop high blood pressure. People who are between the age group of 18 to 39 and 40 years or older are at a higher risk of developing high blood pressure. An appropriate sized arm cuff is used to diagnose Hypertension. There are some machines available which can analyze your blood pressure levels for free.
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What Are The Causes Of Hypertension
Primary hypertension can occur due to the following reasons:
- Aging: Hypertension can occur due to old age.
- Genes: Some people are thought to have hypertension due to a genetic predisposition.
- Obesity: People with obesity fall prey to many diseases. Apart from this, they may also develop high blood pressure or hypertension.
- Smoking: The risk of hypertension is higher in people who smoke. Such people should change their smoking habits and contact a doctor for any abnormalities in the heart.
- High salt intake: Too much salt in the diet puts a person at risk of developing hypertension. Therefore, people should consume less amount of salt to reduce the risk of hypertension.
- Stress: Stress is a common reason for developing high blood pressure or hypertension. Excessive stress can cause several other types of diseases as well.
- Lack of exercise: People who do not do regular physical activities such as yoga or exercise are more likely to develop hypertension. Physical inactivity can also weaken the bodys immunity .
Secondary hypertension can occur due to the following reasons:
- Kidney diseases
Your Best Protection Is Knowledge Management And Prevention
- Know your numbers The best way to know if you have high blood pressure is to have your blood pressure checked.
- Understand the symptoms and risks Learn what factors could make you more likely to develop high blood pressure and put you at risk for serious medical problems.
- Make changes that matter Take steps to reduce your risk and manage your blood pressure. Make heart-healthy lifestyle changes, take any medication as prescribed and work in partnership with your doctor.
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Why Is Hypertension Known As The Silent Killer
Blood pressure is an important part of your health. So, early detection is very important as it is a “”Silent Killer”” because it may show no symptoms. Hypertension puts one at the risk for heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and other diseases. High blood pressure is a long-lasting condition and requires immediate medication. The higher the BP, the higher the chance of serious complications.
Are Uk Blood Pressure Levels On The Rise
Your blood pressure reading will have two figures, one ‘over’ the other – for example, 140/80. The higher figure is a measure of the pressure inside your arteries when your heart is pumping blood out. The lower figure is a measure of the pressure inside your arteries when your heart is resting between beats. Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury .
A one-off blood pressure reading that is high does not mean that you have high blood pressure. Your blood pressure varies throughout the day. It may be high for a short time if you are anxious, stressed, or have just been exercising.
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Things That Can Increase Your Risk Of Getting High Blood Pressure
You might be more at risk if you:
- are overweight
- eat too much salt and do not eat enough fruit and vegetables
- do not do enough exercise
- drink too much alcohol or coffee
- do not get much sleep or have disturbed sleep
- are over 65
- have a relative with high blood pressure
- are of black African or black Caribbean descent
- live in a deprived area
Making healthy lifestyle changes can sometimes help reduce your chances of getting high blood pressure and help lower your blood pressure if it’s already high.
What Is Primary Hypertension Caused By
. Regarding this, what does essential primary hypertension mean?
Essential hypertension is high blood pressure that doesn’t have a known secondary cause. It’s also referred to as primary hypertension. Blood pressure is the force of blood against your artery walls as your heart pumps blood through your body.
Subsequently, question is, what is primary and secondary hypertension? Primary hypertension is diagnosed in the absence of an identifiable secondary cause. Approximately 90-95% of adults with hypertension have primary hypertension, whereas secondary hypertension accounts for around 5-10% of the cases.
Correspondingly, is primary hypertension curable?
Hypertension is a chronic disease. It can be controlled with medication, but it cannot be cured. Therefore, patients need to continue with the treatment and lifestyle modifications as advised by their doctor, and attend regular medical follow up, usually for life.
What causes hypertension?
The exact causes of high blood pressure are not known, but several things may play a role, including:
- Too much salt in the diet.
- Too much alcohol consumption
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What Are The Risk Factors That Increase The Chances Of Having Hypertension
Risk factors that can increase your chances of developing hypertension:
- Alcohol- Excessive alcohol consumption can not only affect your blood pressure but also damage your heart and liver.
- Family history- If one or more of your family members have hypertension, chances are that you are at a higher risk for developing high blood pressure.
- Obesity– Hypertension is also very common in people who are obese and overweight.
- Laziness- People who are physically inactive have higher heart rates. This puts a lot of pressure in the arteries resulting in high blood pressure.
- Tobacco- Chewing or smoking tobacco can damage the lining of your arteries leading to severe Hypertension.
- Inadequate vitamins- Very little amount of vitamin D and potassium in your diet can disturb the sodium levels in your blood causing high blood pressure.
What Causes Hypertensive Retinopathy
Prolonged high blood pressure, or hypertension, is the main cause of HR. High blood pressure is a chronic problem in which the force of the blood against your arteries is too high.
The force is a result of the blood pumping out of the heart and into the arteries, as well as the force created as the heart rests between heartbeats.
When the blood moves through the body at a higher pressure, the tissue that makes up the arteries will begin to stretch and eventually become damaged. This leads to many problems over time.
HR generally occurs after your blood pressure has been consistently high over a prolonged period. Your blood pressure levels can be affected by:
- a lack of physical activity
- being overweight
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What Are The Risks Of Resistant Hypertension
Over time, uncontrolled hypertension damages the arteries, contributing to their stiffening. As the arteries become narrower and less flexible, the heart has to work harder to move blood through the body. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure and other heart conditions cause damage to your kidneys, memory and vision and contribute to erectile dysfunction.
What Causes A Hypertension
Blood pressure is given as a reading of two numbers, such as 110/70. The higher number is the pressure when the heart beats. The diastolic, or lower number shows the pressure between the heartbeats, while the relaxed heart is refilling with blood. Normal blood pressure readings are lower than 120/80. The cause of most hypertension is unknown. Occasionally, conditions of the kidney or adrenal gland are the cause of high blood pressure.
There are several factors that may cause high blood pressure, but the exact cause is unknown. The following factors may increase one’s risk for high blood pressure:
- Sleep apnea
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Secondary Hypertension Treatment Options
If your doctor discovers an underlying issue causing your hypertension, treatment will focus on that other condition. For example, if a medication youve started taking is causing increased blood pressure, your doctor will try other medications that dont have this side effect.
Sometimes, hypertension is persistent despite treatment for the underlying cause. In this case, your doctor may work with you to develop lifestyle changes and prescribe medications to help reduce your blood pressure.
Treatment plans for hypertension often evolve. What worked at first may become less useful over time. Your doctor will continue to work with you to refine your treatment.
Maintain A Healthy Weight
Being overweight is a risk factor for having high blood pressure, and your risk increases further if you are obese.
There are two ways to check if you are overweight:
- Body Mass Index – This is your weight in kilograms divided by your height in metres squared. In the UK, people with a BMI of between 25 to 30 are overweight, and those with an index above 30 are classed as obese. People with a BMI of 40 or more are morbidly obese.
- Waist size – Using a measuring tape place the tape round your waist between the bottom of your ribs and the top of your hip bone. The table below indicates how much your health might be at risk, your ethnicity should also be taken into account.
|Over 80 cm
The best way to tackle obesity is by reducing the amount of calories that you eat, and taking regular exercise. Your GP can provide you with further information and advice on how you can do this.
More about having a healthy weight
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Classification Of Blood Pressure
Blood pressure in adults is classified as normal, elevated blood pressure, stage 1 hypertension, or stage 2 hypertension.
However, the higher the blood pressure, the greater the risk of complicationseven within the normal blood pressure rangeso these limits are somewhat arbitrary.
A hypertensive urgency is diastolic blood pressure that is more than 120 mm Hg but has not yet caused any organ damage that is apparent to people or their doctors. A hypertensive urgency usually does not cause symptoms.
A hypertensive emergency is a particularly severe form of high blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure is at least 120 mm Hg, and there is evidence of progressive damage in one or more vital organs , often accompanied by a variety of symptoms. Hypertensive emergencies are uncommon, but they are several times more common among blacks than among whites, among men than among women, and among people in lower socioeconomic groups than among those in higher socioeconomic groups. If untreated, a hypertensive emergency can be fatal.
Home Blood Pressure Readings
You may be given a machine to take your own blood pressure readings at home.
These are readings taken by a person whilst seated and at rest at home, using a standard blood pressure machine. You need to take readings twice a day for a week. This will give 14 top and 14 bottom readings. Add the top readings together and divide by 14. Then do the same for the bottom readings. This gives you an average reading. It’s normal for your blood pressure to fluctuate, so a single raised reading isn’t a cause for concern unless it’s extremely high.
You may be advised to take readings twice a day for eight days rather than a week, and ignore the readings from the first day, which will tend to be higher.
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Home Remedies And Treatment
It has been shown that meditation and other relaxation techniques can help lower blood pressure. Yoga, tai chi, and breathing exercises can also help reduce blood pressure. It’s best when these are combined with changes in diet and exercise. Tell your doctor if you are taking any herbal remedies, since some of these preparations can actually raise blood pressure or interact with your blood pressure medications. The following are supplements that may lower blood pressure:
- Coenzyme Q10
- Amino acids
What Can I Do To Prevent Or Manage High Blood Pressure
Many people with high blood pressure can lower their blood pressure into a healthy range or keep their numbers in a healthy range by making lifestyle changes. Talk with your health care team about
- Getting at least 150 minutes of physical activity each week
- Not smoking
- Managing stress
In addition to making positive lifestyle changes, some people with high blood pressure need to take medicine to manage their blood pressure. Learn more about medicines for high blood pressure.
Talk with your health care team right away if you think you have high blood pressure or if youve been told you have high blood pressure but do not have it under control.
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Causes And Risk Factors Of Hypertension
Hypertension develops over years. The exact reason for high blood pressure is not known yet but there are certain factors that may play a role in the development of hypertension. These risk factors or causes of hypertension could be-
- Too much salt in the diet
- Too much alcohol consumption
- Too little potassium in your diet
- Older age
- Family history of blood pressure
- Certain chronic disease
What Do The Diastolic And Systolic Numbers Mean
How is blood pressure measured?
Blood pressure is measured with a blood pressure cuff and recorded as two numbers, for example, 120/80 mm Hg . Blood pressure measurements are usually taken at the upper arm over the brachial artery.
- The top, the larger number is called the systolic pressure. This measures the pressure generated when the heart contracts . It reflects the pressure of the blood against arterial walls.
- At the bottom, the smaller number is called the diastolic pressure. This reflects the pressure in the arteries while the heart is filling and resting between heartbeats.
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Understanding Hypertension: Symptoms Causes And Prevention
Blood pressure can be defined as the force of the blood pushing against the veins and arteries when it flows throughout the body. The blood pressure of a healthy human being falls and rises constantly throughout the day.
The blood pressure of a human being is measured in two ways:
- The systolic blood pressure measures the amount of pressure that is in your arteries, during the time your heart is beating and pumping blood.
- The diastolic blood pressure measures the amount of pressure that is in your arteries, during the time your heart is resting in between the action of your heartbeats.
You may now wonder what is the normal measurement of the blood pressure of a normal and healthy human being. A normal measurement of the blood pressure of a normal and healthy human being is less than 120/80 mmHg.