What Is High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure, also called hypertension, is blood pressure that is higher than normal. Your blood pressure changes throughout the day based on your activities. Having blood pressure measures consistently above normal may result in a diagnosis of high blood pressure .
Your health care team can diagnose high blood pressure and make treatment decisions by reviewing your systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels and comparing them to levels found in certain guidelines.
The guidelines used to diagnose high blood pressure may differ from health care professional to health care professional:
- Some health care professionals diagnose patients with high blood pressure if their blood pressure is consistently 140/90 mm Hg or higher.2 This limit is based on a guideline released in 2003, as seen in the table below.
- Other health care professionals diagnose patients with high blood pressure if their blood pressure is consistently 130/80 mm Hg or higher.1 This limit is based on a guideline released in 2017, as seen in the table below.
|systolic: 130 mm Hg or higherdiastolic: 80 mm Hg or higher|
If you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, talk with your health care team about your blood pressure levels and how these levels affect your treatment plan.
What Are Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors What Are The Side Effects
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors or MAOIs were the first class of antidepressants to be developed. They fell out of favor because of concerns about interactions with certain foods and numerous drug interactions. MAOIs elevate the levels of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine by inhibiting an enzyme called monoamine oxidase. Monoamine oxidase breaks down norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. When monoamine oxidase is inhibited, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are not broken down, increasing the concentration of all three neurotransmitters in the brain.
Monoamine oxidase also breaks down tyramine, a chemical present in aged cheese, wines, and other aged foods. Since MAOIs inhibit monoamine oxidase, they decrease the breakdown of tyramine from ingested food, increasing the level of tyramine in the body. Excessive tyramine can elevate blood pressure and cause a hypertensive crisis. Patients treated with MAOIs should adhere to recommended dietary modifications that reduce the intake of tyramine. Interestingly, the 6 mg/24 hour dose of selegiline transdermal system does not require dietary restrictions because at this dose EMSAM does not substantially inhibit tyramine. Higher selegiline transdermal system doses require dietary restrictions.
What are the side effects of MAOIs?
Symptoms of hypertensive crises include
Other side effects and adverse events of MAOIs include:
Sexual side effects may diminish with time or a reduction in dose.
What Are The Medical Uses For Stimulants
Approved medical uses for stimulants include
- attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ,
- treatment-resistant depression.
- Some formulations are used for treating obesity.
Because of their addictive potential, some stimulants are no longer recommended for treating asthma and other nervous system disorders.
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How Is Blood Pressure Measured
A special cuff is used to measure your blood pressure. The cuff inflates and deflates, and during the process, your pressures are measured. Many times, a stethoscope is also used.
Blood pressure readings
Blood pressure is recorded as two measurements: systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Systolic blood pressure is the top/first number, and diastolic blood pressure is the bottom/second number. The numbers are expressed as millimeter of mercury
Systolic blood pressureThe pressure in the arteries when the heart is beating and the arteries are filled with blood
Diastolic blood pressureThe pressure in the arteries when the heart is resting between beats
What do the numbers mean?Your blood pressure can be normal, elevated, or you may have Stage 1 or 2 hypertension .Normal blood pressure is < 120/< 80 mmHgElevated blood pressure is 120-129/< 80 mmHgStage 1 hypertension is 130-139 OR 80-89 Stage 2 hypertension is 140 or higher OR 90 or higher
Two or more readings are needed to determine if you have high blood pressure.
GET IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION!IF YOUR TOP NUMBER IS EVER 180 OR HIGHER AND/OR YOUR BOTTOM NUMBER IS EVER 110 OR HIGHER, GET EMERGENCY MEDICAL TREATMENT OR HAVE SOMEONE TAKE YOU TO THE HOSPITAL RIGHT AWAY!
Bottom Number In Blood Pressure Is High What To Do
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Tips For Managing High Blood Pressure
Theres no cure for high blood pressure, but you can successfully manage it with medication and living a healthy lifestyle, Dr. Dadabhoy says.
The following changes can help you better manage high blood pressure:
- Monitoring your blood pressure regularly
- Taking your medications as prescribed
- Eating a well-balanced, low-salt diet
- Exercising regularly
- Maintaining a healthy weight that you and your doctor have agreed on
- Quitting smoking
- Increasing potassium intake, if recommended by your doctor
- Managing stress
What Does A High Bottom Number On Blood Pressure Mean
The bottom number represents your blood pressure while your heart muscle is resting between beats. This is known as diastolic pressure. Both values are significant in determining the health of your heart. Numbers that are higher than the optimum range suggest that your heart is working too hard to pump blood throughout your body. This can lead to serious problems over time.
A high-normal blood pressure reading indicates that your heart is working harder than normal. It is not yet in danger of failure but this condition can progress rapidly if changes are not made soon. A physician will be able to tell you what action should be taken by you or your patient to reduce this burden on the heart.
A high blood pressure reading also suggests that the walls of your arteries are being damaged by your high blood pressure. Over time, these lesions may become complete blocks to blood flow, causing pain when you exercise or have a cold, and requiring surgery to correct them.
Finally, a high blood pressure reading shows that you are at risk for having an episode of severe hypertension which could result in death. During such an attack, it is important to get medical help immediately so that blood pressure medications can be given to reduce the risk of damage to your brain and other organs.
High-normal blood pressure is considered to be systolic pressure greater than 120 and less than 140 or diastolic pressure greater than 80 and less than 90.
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The Human Body Will Crave A Fixed Amount Of Salt Every Day
The body does not crave a fixed amount of salt. Cravings for salt are usually tied into diet the more salt you eat, the more salt you may crave. If you begin to eat less salt, within eight to 12 weeks your taste for it will decrease. Other seasonings can be used to satisfy a salt craving as you wean yourself off. Salt substitutes containing potassium chloride may also help wean you off the sodium, but some people with medical conditions may not be able to use them. Consult your doctor before using any salt substitutes. In rare cases, the body may crave salt due to a medical condition, such as Addison’s disease. If you have unusual cravings for salt, consult your doctor.
Healthy And Unhealthy Blood Pressure Ranges
Learn whats considered normal, as recommended by the American Heart Association.
|SYSTOLIC mm Hg||and/or||DIASTOLIC mm Hg|
|HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE STAGE 1||130 139|
|HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE STAGE 2||140 OR HIGHER|
|HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS||HIGHER THAN 180||and/or||HIGHER THAN 120|
Note: A diagnosis of high blood pressure must be confirmed with a medical professional. A doctor should also evaluate any unusually low blood pressure readings.
The five blood pressure ranges as recognized by the American Heart Association are:
Blood Pressure: What Your Numbers Mean For Your Health
In 2017, leading heart experts redefined high blood pressure for the first time in 14 years. These new blood pressure guidelines from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association give a lower definition of high blood pressure. According to the ACC, this new definition may result in nearly half of U.S. adults being diagnosed with the condition.
How Do You Treat High Diastolic Blood Pressure
Treatment aims to lower your blood pressure to decrease the risk of health issues caused by high blood pressure.
If you have a blood pressure reading between 120/80mm Hg and 130/80mm Hg, your doctor may suggest lifestyle changes to help bring your blood pressure down to the optimal range. At this stage, medication is rarely prescribed.
Stage I hypertension
If your blood pressure is lower than 140/90mm Hg but above 130/80mm Hg, your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes with one hypertensive medication.
Stage II hypertension
If your blood pressure is above 140/90mm Hg, your doctor may recommend you start taking rigorous medications and follow strict lifestyle changes. Typically, one medication is used at first. Your doctor may start you on another if you have consistently elevated blood pressure above 160/90mm Hg or stage II hypertension.
These medications slow down your heart rate and help relax the heart.
These help your kidneys eliminate some salt from your body, so your blood vessels don’t have to retain as much fluid, as you can maintain blood pressure.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
ACE inhibitors work on your kidneys, reducing your body’s sodium retention. They also work on blood vessels directly, causing them to relax.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers
These work similarly to ACE inhibitors.
Calcium channel blockers
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What Can I Expect If I Have This Condition
Since high blood pressure doesnt cause many symptoms at first, you probably wont feel any different with a high blood pressure diagnosis. But its important to follow your providers instructions to bring your blood pressure down so it doesnt cause serious illnesses later in life.
How long does high blood pressure last?
If you have primary high blood pressure, youll need to control it for the rest of your life.
If you have secondary high blood pressure, your blood pressure will most likely come down after you receive treatment for the medical problem that caused it. If a medication caused your high blood pressure, switching to a different medicine may lower your blood pressure.
What is the outlook for high blood pressure?
You can get seriously ill if you dont treat your high blood pressure. However, if you take the medicines your provider ordered, you can control your blood pressure. Exercising and eating healthy foods also helps lower your blood pressure.
What Is Systolic Blood Pressure
When you get a blood pressure reading, youll see two numbers one on the top and one on the bottom. The top number is your systolic blood pressure, and this is the amount of pressure your heart creates as it beats to pump blood through your arteries. The bottom number is your diastolic blood pressure, which is the amount of pressure in your arteries in between heartbeats.
Low systolic blood pressure is defined as being lower than 90, and low diastolic blood pressure is any number lower than 60.
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If You Are : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 1500 Mg Per Day Should Be Your Sodium Limit
Even though the USDA dietary guidelines recommended amount of sodium for adults is 2,300 milligrams daily, if you are over 50 years old, African-American, or diabetic you should limit your sodium intake to just 1,500 mg daily. If you have high blood pressure, heart disease, kidney disease, or other medical conditions you may need to limit your sodium even more. Talk to your doctor about how much sodium you should consume.
What If Lifestyle Changes Dont Help Lower My Blood Pressure
If diet, exercise and other lifestyle changes dont work to lower your blood pressure, your healthcare provider will prescribe medications to help lower your blood pressure. Your provider will take into account other conditions you may have, such as heart or kidney disease and other drugs youre taking when prescribing medications to treat your high blood pressure. Be sure to follow your providers dosing directions exactly.
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What Causes Diastolic Blood Pressure To Be High
Generally, both blood pressure numbers are elevated when it comes to hypertension. But, when your diastolic blood pressure is above 80mm Hg , and you have normal systolic blood pressure, it’s called isolated diastolic blood pressure.
Causes of isolated diastolic hypertension may include:
A diet that’s high in salt disrupts your body’s natural sodium balance, causing your body to retain water. This leads to increased pressure of the pushing of your blood against your vessel walls.
One study found that, for people with hypertension, a ‘no-added-salt diet’ is the best approach. Following this diet for six weeks, both systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly.³
According to a few large epidemiological studies, there’s a link between blood pressure and body mass index in both overweight and normal-weight patients. Gaining weight in our adult years seems to be a particularly strong risk factor for developing hypertension.
Not enough physical activity
The primary treatment and prevention of hypertension is exercise, an important element of lifestyle therapy. Various studies show the beneficial effects of physical activity on hypertension, with as large a reduction as 57mm Hg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in people with hypertension.
Excessive alcohol consumption
Anxiety and stress
Certain medications can cause high diastolic blood pressure. These include:
Oral contraceptive pills
Understanding Blood Pressure Readings
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury .
There are several different blood pressure categories, which are
One of the biggest challenges with high blood pressure is that it typically has no symptoms or warning signs. The only way to know whether your blood pressure is too high is to get it measured.
There are when it comes to getting your blood pressure checked. You can get it measured:
- at your doctors office or during a health checkup
- at a pharmacy with a digital blood pressure measuring device
- at home with a home blood pressure monitor
Medications For High Blood Pressure
There are a variety of medications that can help manage high blood pressure. Again, medication is typically recommended when lifestyle changes dont produce results, and in more serious blood pressure cases like stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension. Medications for high blood pressure include:
- Alpha, beta and alpha-beta blockersStop epinephrine and similar hormones from affecting the cardiovascular system, allowing the muscles of the heart and arteries to stay relaxed.
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorsStop the body from producing angiotensin, a hormone that narrows blood vessels.
- Angiotensin receptor blockers Stop angiotensin from affecting blood vessels.
- Calcium channel blockersHelp keep arteries relaxed by preventing calcium from entering heart and artery cells.
- Central agonistsHelp control heart rate and blood flow by blocking signals between the brain and the nervous system.
- DiureticsReduce excess sodium and water in the body.
- Renin inhibitorsSlow the bodys production of the enzyme renin, which can play a role in high blood pressure.
- VasodilatorsPrevent artery and vein muscles from narrowing.
Do I Have High Blood Pressure
Anyone can have high blood pressure. Some medical conditions, such as metabolic syndrome, kidney disease, and thyroid problems, can cause high blood pressure. Some people have a greater chance of having it because of things they can’t change. These are:
- Age. The chance of having high blood pressure increases as you get older, especially isolated systolic hypertension.
- Gender. Before age 55, men have a greater chance of having high blood pressure. Women are more likely to have high blood pressure after menopause.
- Family history. High blood pressure tends to run in some families.
- Race. African Americans are at increased risk for high blood pressure.
High blood pressure often has no signs or symptoms, but routine checks of your blood pressure will help detect increasing levels. If your blood pressure reading is high at two or more check-ups, the doctor may also ask you to measure your blood pressure at home.
There are important considerations for older adults in deciding whether to start treatment for high blood pressure if it is above 130/80, including other health conditions and overall fitness. Your doctor may work with you to find a blood pressure target that is best for your well-being and may suggest exercise, changes in your diet, and medications.
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Diastolic Blood Pressure: How Low Is Too Low
Blood pressure consists of two numbers. Systolic pressure, the force exerted on blood vessels when the heart beats, is the upper number. Diastolic pressure, the force exerted when the heart is at rest, is on the bottom in more ways than one. Systolic pressure attracts the lions share of attention from physicians and patients, says UAB cardiologist Jason Guichard, M.D., Ph.D.
Physicians are busy people, and like it or not they often focus on a single number, Guichard said. Systolic blood pressure is the focus, and diastolic pressure is almost completely ignored. That is a mistake, he argues. The majority of your arteries feed your organs during systole. But your coronary arteries are different they are surrounding the aortic valve, so they get blood only when the aortic valve closes and that happens in diastole.
Diastolic pressure has been getting more attention lately, however, thanks in part to an influential paper in Hypertension, written in 2011 by Guichard and Ali Ahmed, M.D., then a professor of medicine in UABs Division of Gerontology, Geriatrics and Palliative Care and now the associate chief of staff for Health and Aging at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Washington, D.C.
Most people are trying to lower their blood pressure. What would you define as too low, and why is that a problem?