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Which Of The Following Hormones Will Lower Blood Pressure

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Part I – Regulation of Blood Pressure (Hormones)

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Vertebrate Endocrine Glands And Hormones

The information below was adapted from OpenStax Biology 37.5

Unlike plant hormones, animal hormones are often produced in specialized hormone-synthesizing glands . The hormones are then secreted from the glands into the blood stream, where they are transported throughout the body. There are many glands and hormones in different animal species, and we will focus on just a small collection of them.

Locations of endocrine glands in the human body. Image credit: OpenStax Anatomy and Physiology.

In vertebrates, glands and hormones they produce include :

  • pituitary gland: the bodys master gland located at the base of the brain and attached to the hypothalamus via a stalk called the pituitary stalk has two distinct regions: the anterior portion of the pituitary gland is regulated by releasing or release-inhibiting hormones produced by the hypothalamus, and the posterior pituitary receives signals via neurosecretory cells to release hormones produced by the hypothalamus. Hormones produced by the gland include:
  • anterior pituitary: the following hormones are produced by the anterior pituitary and released in response to hormone signals from the hypothalamus
  • growth hormone: stimulates growth factors
  • adrenocorticotropic hormone : simulates adrenal glands to secrete glucocorticoids such as cortisol
  • thyroid-stimulating hormone: stimulates thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones
  • prolactin: stimulates mammary gland growth and milk production
  • adrenal cortex:
  • adrenal medulla:
  • ovaries :
  • Normative Levels Of Arterial Pressure In Humans

    ABP is a quantitative trait because values vary with age, sex, body weight, and physical activity of the individual. A pressure considered normal in one individual may be judged abnormal in another. ABP increases with age for both genders and generally is lower in premenopausal women than in men of the same age. ABP increases with increased body mass such that some hypertensive subjects can normalize their ABP by losing only 510% of body mass. Once hypertension is evident, gender differences tend to be obscured .

    Figure 11. Variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure with age as function of gender and race for subjects in the U.S. population, over the age of 18 years. For both genders, SBP exhibits a steady increase with age. As discussed, this SBP age-dependence partly reflects increased rigidity of conduit and smaller arteries with aging. In contrast, DBP tends to exhibit little increase beyond the age of 5059 years for both genders. Note the significant increase in pulse pressure after the age of 50 years for both genders and races examined.

    Figure 12. Illustration of the extreme spread of systolic blood pressure . In part, the distribution spread reflects age variation, as shown in Figure 11. As reported in the JNC7, SBPs greater than 115 mmHg are associated with 60% increase of cerebrovascular disease in subjects and nearly 50% ischemic heart disease.

    Daniel De Backer, in, 2020

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    Dehydration Lower Blood Pressure

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    What Is Addison’s Disease

    Addisons disease is a chronic condition in which your adrenal glands dont produce enough of the hormones cortisol and aldosterone.

    Your adrenal glands, also known as suprarenal glands, are small, triangle-shaped glands that are located on top of each of your two kidneys. Theyre a part of your endocrine system.

    Cortisol is a hormone that helps your body respond to stress, including the stress of illness, injury or surgery. It also helps maintain your blood pressure, heart function, immune system and blood glucose levels. Cortisol is essential for life.

    Aldosterone is a hormone that affects the balance of sodium and potassium in your blood. This in turn controls the amount of fluid your kidneys remove as urine , which affects blood volume and blood pressure.

    Addisons disease is also called primary adrenal insufficiency. A related disorder, secondary adrenal insufficiency, happens when your pituitary gland doesnt release enough adrenocorticotropic hormone , which activates your adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

    What Is The Safest Blood Pressure Medicine For The Elderly

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    Changing The Diameter Of Arterioles And Veins

    Muscle tissue within the walls of arterioles allow these blood vessels to widen or narrow . The more constricted arterioles are, the greater their resistance to blood flow and the higher the blood pressure. Constriction of arterioles increases blood pressure because more pressure is needed to force blood through the narrower space. Conversely, dilation of arterioles reduces resistance to blood flow, thus reducing blood pressure. The degree to which arterioles are constricted or dilated is affected by

    Veins also play a role in the control of blood pressure, although their effect on blood pressure is much less than that of arterioles. Veins dilate and constrict to change how much blood they can hold . When veins constrict, their capacity to hold blood is reduced, allowing more blood to return to the heart from which it is pumped into the arteries. As a result, blood pressure increases. Conversely, when veins dilate, their capacity to hold blood is increased, allowing less blood to return to the heart. As a result, blood pressure decreases.

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    Hormonal Regulation Of The Reproductive System

    Part II – Regulation of Blood Pressure (Hormones)

    Regulation of the reproductive system is a process that requires the action of hormones from the pituitary gland, the adrenal cortex, and the gonads. During puberty in both males and females, the hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone , which stimulates the production and release of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone from the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones regulate the gonads and therefore are called gonadotropins. In both males and females, FSH stimulates gamete production and LH stimulates production of hormones by the gonads. An increase in gonad hormone levels inhibits GnRH production through a negative feedback loop.

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    Effects Of Progestins On Blood Pressure

    Data from both human and animal studies indicate that progesterone, the natural progestin, has either neutral or depressor effects on blood pressure. For example, decreases in blood pressure with the progression of pregnancy are positively correlated with increases in progesterone . Moreover, oral administration of natural progesterone significantly lowered blood pressure in six men and four postmenopausal women with mild to moderate hypertension who were not receiving antihypertensive drugs . In contrast, administration of natural progesterone to seven postclimacteric women failed to influence blood pressure . In animal studies, acute administration of progesterone did not alter mean arterial blood pressure in rats .

    Most studies conducted with synthetic progestins for contraception or hormone replacement therapy have shown a blood pressure elevating effect . Contraceptive progestins have androgenic activity, whereas natural progesterone are non-androgenic. The blood pressure elevating effects of contraceptive progestins may therefore depend on the androgenicity of the individual progestin .

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    What Vitamins Might Lower Blood Pressure Too Much

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    Effects Of Estradiol On Circulating Factors

    Estradiol modulates the synthesis of circulating factors known to influence vascular tone and structure. For example, estradiol increases bradykinin levels and may lower blood pressure by increasing bradykinin synthesis . Estradiol down-regulates the expression of angiotensin converting enzyme in serum as well as in the vasculature and decreases renin release and Ang II formation . These effects are in some respects paradoxical since estradiol stimulates angiotensinogen expression in the liver . Ang II is a potent mitogen for vascular smooth muscle cells and induces vascular remodeling processes associated with hypertension. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of estradiol on the reninangiotensin system may lead to reduced vascular growth. Estradiol also down-regulates the expression of Ang II type 1 receptors in smooth muscle cells . Since these receptors mediate the mitogenic effects of Ang II, estradiol may abrogate the effects of Ang II in part via this mechanism. Our own studies show that estradiol inhibits Ang II-induced growth of human smooth muscle cells in vitro , thus supporting this concept. Additionally, estradiol induces the synthesis of Ang 17, a vasodilator and smooth muscle cell growth inhibitor .

    What Tests Can Check The Health Of My Anterior Pituitary

    PPT

    If youre experiencing symptoms related to anterior pituitary issues, your healthcare provider may order tests to check one or more of your anterior pituitary hormone levels, depending on what your symptoms are. These tests are usually blood tests.

    If your test results come back abnormal, your provider may suggest undergoing an imaging test such as an MRI to take a look at your pituitary gland.

    A note from Cleveland Clinic

    Since your anterior pituitary is responsible for several different hormones that affect many aspects of your body and health, it can be difficult to pinpoint if certain symptoms are a result of issues with your anterior pituitary. If youre ever experiencing new or concerning symptoms, its important to talk to your healthcare provider. They can usually run some simple tests to assess your health.

    Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 12/21/2021.

    References

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    Regulation Of Arterial Pressure

    Arterial pressures in all mammals from mice to humans is in the same range and blood pressure is one of the bodys most tightly regulated variables. The feedback control is remarkable. A young male exercising to near maximum aerobic capacity can increase cardiac output fivefold or more but mean arterial pressure does not change or even slightly decreases. For this to occur, arterial resistance must decrease by more than 80%. This tight regulation of arterial pressure occurs primarily through baroreceptor regulation, but regional myogenic mechanisms and metabolic activity also contribute to local autoregulation. Flow-mediated adjustments also occur, by which increased flow produces a decrease in downstream vascular resistance by the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium .

    What Happens If I Have Too Much Anti

    High levels of anti-diuretic hormone cause the kidneys to retain water in the body. There is a condition called Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone secretion where excess anti-diuretic hormone is released when it is not needed . With this condition, excessive water retention dilutes the blood, giving a characteristically low salt concentration. Excessive levels of anti-diuretic hormone might be caused by drug side-effects and diseases of the lungs, chest wall, hypothalamus or pituitary. Some tumours , can produce anti-diuretic hormone.

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    Blood Pressure Medication That Prevents Diabetic Kidney Damage

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