Lack Of Physical Activity
A sedentary lifestyle can contribute to several health issues, including high blood pressure.
According to the AHA , physical activity can help a person lower their blood pressure. It can also improve their heart health and reduce their weight.
The AHA recommend 150 minutes a week of moderate-to-intense physical activity, such as walking briskly, running, or bicycling.
High Diastolic Blood Pressure Consequences
You may have noticed the diastolic pressure has been high more often than normal. A frequent question to ask is, should I worry if my diastolic is high?
Having a consistent high diastolic number is a concern. High diastolic pressure increases the risk of developing high systolic blood pressure as a person ages. Higher diastolic pressure increases the risk of death from ischemic heart disease and stroke.
High diastolic pressure alone may be used to determine a diagnosis of high blood pressure.
Previous studies of more than one million people have shown increased risks with higher diastolic numbers. The results involved individuals aged 40 to 89 years. For every 10 mmHg increase in diastolic pressure, the risk of mortality from ischemic heart disease and stroke doubled 10.
In addition, the Framingham Heart Study examined 6,859 people who were initially free of high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. They compared people with blood pressure between 130-139/85-89 mmHg to people with less than 120/80 mmHg.
The individuals with higher systolic and diastolic pressure doubled their risk of cardiovascular disease 11.
When Should You See A Doctor
Early high blood pressure detection is essential. This silent killer often shows no warning signs and therefore puts people at a higher risk of conditions such as:
Over 360,000 high-blood-pressure deaths occurred in 2016 in the US, whether hypertension was a contributing cause or the main cause.¹²
The only way to identify if you have high blood pressure is to measure it. You can visit your healthcare provider for regular blood pressure monitoring, or you can purchase a sphygmomanometer to measure your blood pressure at home.
If you’re at risk of high blood pressure, you need to schedule routine healthcare visits to monitor your blood pressure. You should also see your healthcare provider if you have high blood pressure and your efforts to reduce your blood pressure have been ineffective.
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What Causes High Systolic Blood Pressure
When you have normal diastolic blood pressure, but your systolic blood pressure is high, it’s called isolated systolic hypertension. The American College of Cardiology states that isolated systolic hypertension can increase the risk of heart disease and even death in young adults.
Certain medical disorders can cause you to develop isolated systolic hypertension. These disorders can frequently cause effects on the circulatory system, damaging blood vessels or contributing to the stiffening of arteries.
These disorders include:
When your red blood cells don’t function properly, or you don’t have enough of them to deliver oxygen to your tissues, it can result in anemia. This can cause blood vessel damage as your heart works even harder to pump blood to your body’s tissues to deliver enough oxygen.
Hyperthyroidism occurs when a person has an overactive thyroid, which is caused by an excess of thyroid hormones produced by your thyroid gland. This excess of thyroid hormone can affect virtually every internal organ, including your circulatory system and heart.
Diabetes occurs when you have high amounts of glucose in your blood. Over time, these high levels of glucose can cause numerous issues, including problems with your circulatory system and heart.
What Can I Do To Prevent Or Manage High Blood Pressure
Many people with high blood pressure can lower their blood pressure into a healthy range or keep their numbers in a healthy range by making lifestyle changes. Talk with your health care team about
- Getting at least 150 minutes of physical activity each week
- Not smoking
- Managing stress
In addition to making positive lifestyle changes, some people with high blood pressure need to take medicine to manage their blood pressure. Learn more about medicines for high blood pressure.
Talk with your health care team right away if you think you have high blood pressure or if youve been told you have high blood pressure but do not have it under control.
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Number Of Pregnant Women With High Blood Pressure Rises More Than Thirteenfold Since 1970 Study Finds
If not treated, high blood pressure during pregnancy can lead to a number of complications for both the mother and the baby. Hypertension can affect a mother’s kidneys and increase her risk of future heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke.
It can also increase the risk of preterm delivery, low birth weight, preeclampsia, placental abruption, cesarean delivery, and HELLP syndrome .
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So You Have High Blood Pressure What Else Could Be Wrong
If you have high blood pressure, get checked for diabetes and high cholesterol. Most people who have high blood pressure also have some of the other risks for heart disease and stroke, such as not getting enough physical activity, having unhealthy eating habits, smoking, being overweight or drinking too much alcohol. Ask your doctor to test your kidney function through a blood and urine test, and through the electrolytes in your blood kidney problems can cause high blood pressure.
Women Who Consume A Lot Of Caffeine Should Reduce Their Consumption When Pregnant
In general, doctors recommend women reduce caffeine consumption when pregnant. Caffeine is a stimulant which can increase your heart rate, something that should be avoided during pregnancy. Caffeine also crosses the placenta and while an adult woman can handle the caffeine, a developing baby may not be able to. Studies have shown caffeine can cause birth defects, premature delivery, and miscarriage. Moderate levels of caffeine may be ok. Consult your doctor.
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Which Drugs Interact With Tcas
- TCAs may inhibit the antihypertensive effect of clonidine . Therefore, combining TCAs with clonidine may lead to dangerous elevations in blood pressure.
- TCAs may affect the heart’s electrical conduction system. Combining TCAs with drugs that also affect the heart’s conduction system may increase the frequency and severity of an abnormal heart rate and rhythm.
- Combining TCAs with carbamazepine may result in lower TCA blood levels because carbamazepine increases the breakdown of TCAs, potentially reducing their effect.
- TCAs may increase the blood pressure elevating effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, phenylephrine, and dobutamine.
- Cimetidine may reduce the breakdown of some TCAs, for example, amitriptyline , increasing the level of the TCA in the body, and potentially leading to increased side effects. As mentioned previously, TCAs should not be combined with MAOIs.
Causes Of Secondary Hypertension
When high blood pressure arises suddenly due to an identifiable condition, its called secondary hypertension.
Some conditions and drugs can lead to secondary hypertension, including the following:
- Kidney problems
HormonesBirth control pills can also affect blood pressure. Women who take birth control pills usually experience a small rise in systolic and diastolic blood pressure .
Hormone therapy used to relieve symptoms of menopause can also cause a small rise in systolic blood pressure.
If you know you have high blood pressure, but are considering hormone therapy, talk with your doctor about the risks and benefits of undergoing hormone therapy, as well as the best ways to control your blood pressure.
Additionally, some recreational and illegal drugs, such as cocaine, ecstasy , and amphetamines, are also known to increase blood pressure.
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Heart Attack And Heart Disease
High blood pressure can damage your arteries by making them less elastic, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to your heart and leads to heart disease. In addition, decreased blood flow to the heart can cause:
- Chest pain, also called angina.
- Heart attack, which happens when the blood supply to your heart is blocked and heart muscle begins to die without enough oxygen. The longer the blood flow is blocked, the greater the damage to the heart.
- Heart failure, a condition that means your heart cant pump enough blood and oxygen to your other organs.
Who Gets Isolated Systolic Hypertension
Older people are more likely to have it, because systolic blood pressure usually goes up as you age.
- More than 30% of women over 65 and more than 20% of men have this condition.
- If your parents had high blood pressure, you may be more likely to have it.
- African-Americans are more likely than other groups to have high blood pressure.
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Medicines For High Blood Pressure
|Why are different people given different medicines?|
People respond differently to blood pressure medicines. A number of things can affect how you respond to each medicine, including your ethnic background, age and how much salt you eat. It can take some trial and error to find the medicine or combination of medicines that works best for you.
Younger, non-black people tend to respond slightly better to ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers. Older people and those of African or Caribbean origin tend to respond better to calcium-channel blockers and thiazide diuretics.
These will usually be the first medicines youre offered, aiming to keep the number of medicines needed to a minimum. Read more about finding the right medicines for you.
|Should I be taking aspirin as well?|
If you have high blood pressure, your doctor might recommend that you take aspirin if you are at a higher risk of heart attacks or strokes, for example, if you have had an ischaemic stroke caused by a blood clot or heart attack in the past. This is because aspirin thins your blood and prevents blood clots from forming.
Do not start taking aspirin regularly unless your doctor advsises you to because aspirinâs ability to prevent clots can raise the risk of bleeding from the stomach and intestines, it might also be linked to a higher risk of strokes caused by burst blood vessels.
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What Does It Mean When The Diastolic Number Is High
A high diastolic reading is linked to a higher risk of disease involving the large artery called the aorta that carries blood and oxygen from the heart to distant body parts. People with an elevated diastolic reading are more prone to develop an abdominal aortic aneurysm . The problem with such ballooning is that it ruptures and causes a high risk of death. Diastolic pressure is pressure that the blood column puts on the arteries between beats when the heart is relaxed.
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Systolic Versus Diastolic Pressure Level
Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure level are strongly and independently related to atherothrombotic brain infarction incidence, although the diastolic component has been thought to be of primary importance. Clinical trials of antihypertensive treatment and disease prevention, principally stroke, have used diastolic blood pressure as the basis for categorizing subjects. However, evidence of the ascendancy of diastolic blood pressure over systolic is lacking. Diastolic blood pressure, which is more difficult to measure accurately and varies within a narrower range than the systolic component, seems to provide no advantage in predicting the cardiovascular complications of hypertension. Among people with systolic blood pressures 160 mm Hg or higher, stroke risk does not increase with increasing levels of diastolic blood pressure. On the other hand, among people with diastolic hypertension, incidence of stroke increases steadily with level of systolic blood pressure.
SHEMY CARASSO MD, HARRY RAKOWSKI MD, in, 2008
Lowering High Diastolic Blood Pressure
Regardless of the cause, IDH should not be ignored. In many individuals, the systolic pressure will also become elevated over time. In the Framingham Heart Study, 83 percent of those with IDH developed mixed hypertension over the next 10 years.
Even if it doesn’t progress, IDH itself increases the likelihood of serious cardiovascular complications. A study published in the March 2014 issue of the Journal of Hypertension noted that adults with IDH had double the risk of cardiovascular complications, including heart attacks, strokes or heart-related death, compared to normal-pressure adults.
from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association recommend treating all individuals with a diastolic pressure of 80 mmHg or greater, regardless of whether the person has IDH or mixed hypertension.
Strategies to lower blood pressure may include weight loss, dietary changes, exercise and medication. Reducing other risk factors for cardiovascular disease by controlling blood sugar and cholesterol levels is also important.
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Your Blood Pressure Numbers And What They Mean
Your blood pressure is recorded as two numbers:
- Systolic blood pressure indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls when the heart beats.
- Diastolic blood pressure indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls while the heart is resting between beats.
What Should I Do If I Have High Blood Pressure
If your healthcare provider has diagnosed you with high blood pressure, they will talk with you about your recommended blood pressure target or goal. They may suggest that you:
- Check your blood pressure regularly with a home blood pressure monitor. These are automated electronic monitors and are available at most pharmacies or online.
- Quit smoking and/or using tobacco products.
- Work on controlling anger and managing stress.
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Do I Have High Blood Pressure
Anyone can have high blood pressure. Some medical conditions, such as metabolic syndrome, kidney disease, and thyroid problems, can cause high blood pressure. Some people have a greater chance of having it because of things they can’t change. These are:
- Age. The chance of having high blood pressure increases as you get older, especially isolated systolic hypertension.
- Gender. Before age 55, men have a greater chance of having high blood pressure. Women are more likely to have high blood pressure after menopause.
- Family history. High blood pressure tends to run in some families.
- Race. African Americans are at increased risk for high blood pressure.
High blood pressure often has no signs or symptoms, but routine checks of your blood pressure will help detect increasing levels. If your blood pressure reading is high at two or more check-ups, the doctor may also ask you to measure your blood pressure at home.
There are important considerations for older adults in deciding whether to start treatment for high blood pressure if it is above 130/80, including other health conditions and overall fitness. Your doctor may work with you to find a blood pressure target that is best for your well-being and may suggest exercise, changes in your diet, and medications.
What Diet Helps Control High Blood Pressure
- Eat foods that are lower in fat, salt and calories, such as skim or 1% milk, fresh vegetables and fruits, and whole-grain rice and pasta.
- Use flavorings, spices and herbs to make foods tasty without using salt. The optimal recommendation for salt in your diet is to have less than 1,500 milligrams of sodium a day. Don’t forget that most restaurant foods and many processed and frozen foods contain high levels of salt. Use herbs and spices that do not contain salt in recipes to flavor your food. Dont add salt at the table.
- Avoid or cut down on foods high in fat or salt, such as butter and margarine, regular salad dressings, fatty meats, whole milk dairy products, fried foods, processed foods or fast foods and salted snacks.
- Ask your provider if you should increase potassium in your diet. Discuss the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet with your provider. The DASH diet emphasizes adding fruits, vegetables and whole grains to your diet while reducing the amount of sodium. Since its rich in fruits and vegetables, which are naturally lower in sodium than many other foods, the DASH diet makes it easier to eat less salt and sodium.