Blood Pressure During Generalized Convulsive Seizures
A drop in systemic BP should be counteracted by an increase of HR via the arterial baroreflex which, in turn, may be compromised by seizure-related alterations of the reflex loop. Indeed, the baroreflex sensitivity was recently shown to be markedly impaired in the early postictal period following 7 FBTCS in 7 patients, whereas BRS was intact after 19 FS in 19 patients . These findings were largely replicated in a study by Esmaeili et al. including 9 FBTCS and 14 FS of 18 patients . The apparent impairment of BRS in the aftermaths of FBTCS is possibly due to metabolically mediated muscular hyperemia in skeletal muscles following the generalized tonic-clonic convulsions on the one hand and the massive release of catecholamines with subsequent acceleration of HR on the other hand. Alternatively, exhaustion or suppression of neuronal activity after FBTCS may compromise brain stem function including the networks in the caudal VLM, the rostral ventral medulla, and the NA . For instance, FBTCS are commonly followed by a postictal generalized electroencephalographic suppression and in one patient, postictal hypotension was observed in association with PGES . Opposite to this assumption, however, postictal changes of BP and BRS were not related to occurrence or duration of PGES . Altogether, these results must be taken with caution and larger-scale studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.
The Eyes Have It For High Blood Pressure Clues
When Dr. William White shines a bright light in his patient’s eye, he’s looking for more than just vision problems.
He’s searching for clues indicating the effects of high blood pressure, or hypertension, and what he finds could help prevent heart attacks, strokes and other serious health problems far beyond the eye.
“We can see changes due to vascular conditions caused by diabetes or hypertension,” said White, an optometrist with Baylor Scott & White Health in Temple, Texas. “The blood vessels in the retina can become a little more stiff and hardened. They’ll push on each other and cross, like two hoses in a confined space.
“When it gets really bad, we’ll see some of the blood vessels start to leak, we’ll see some hemorrhaging. And that can cause a whole range of vision issues.”
Vision symptoms may not show up for years. But ultimately, high blood pressure can result in hypertensive retinopathy, blood vessel damage causing blurred vision or loss of sight choroidopathy, a buildup of fluid under the retina that can distort or impair vision or optic neuropathy, a blood flow blockage that can kill nerve cells and cause vision loss.
Similarly, high blood pressure may not reveal itself for decades before causing a heart attack or stroke, which earns its grim description as the “silent killer.”
That is why detecting high blood pressure early and treating it with diet, exercise and medication is crucial, and why White says eye doctors are on the front lines of the battle.
Prevalence Of Alcohol Withdrawal Seizures
While not everyone who experiences alcohol withdrawal will suffer from seizures, a 2015 report in the journal Drugs indicates that about one-tenth of patients undergoing withdrawal will have a seizure. Seizures from alcohol withdrawal typically begin one to two days after a person has his or her last alcoholic beverage, and they are usually tonic-clonic seizures.
Also called grand mal seizures, this type of seizure involves muscle stiffening as well as twitching and jerking motions, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. A person suffering a tonic-clonic or grand mal seizure will become unconscious and may have difficulty breathing.
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Can Medications Cause High Blood Glucose In Dogs
Hyperglycemia in Dogs. A dog with unusually high levels of glucose in the blood is stated to have hyperglycemia. An easy carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, which normal levels range in between 75-120mg. Insulin, a hormone that is produced and launched by the pancreas into the blood …
Key Points About Epilepsy And Seizures
A seizure occurs when one or more parts of the brain has a burst of abnormal electrical signals that interrupt normal signals
There are many types of seizures. Each can cause different kinds of symptoms. These range from slight body movements to loss of consciousness and convulsions.
Epilepsy is when you have 2 or more seizures with no known cause.
Epilepsy is treated with medicine. In some cases, it may be treated with VNS or surgery.
Its important to avoid anything that triggers seizures. This includes lack of sleep.
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Strokes Can Cause Seizures And Epilepsy3
Lower your chance of having a stroke by:
- Controlling high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol
- Having a healthy weight
- Limiting alcohol
- Avoiding smoking.6
A single seizure may happen soon after a stroke.3 You dont necessarily have epilepsy if you have just one seizure, and you wont necessarily develop it. Certain types of strokes, such as ones that cause bleeding, and more severe strokes may be more likely to cause epilepsy.3
One study found that among people who had strokes, 5% had one seizure and 7% developed epilepsy in the 30 months afterward.3
Epilepsy caused by strokes can usually be controlled with anti-seizure medicines.3 Its important to take medicine as prescribed to keep seizures under control.
How Do I Know If I Have High Blood Pressure
High blood pressure usually doesnt cause symptoms. The only way to know if you have high blood pressure is to have your blood pressure taken. Know your numbers so you can make the changes that help prevent or limit damage.
Your blood pressure reading has two numbers. The top number is the systolic, which measures the pressure on the blood vessel walls when your heart beats. The bottom number is the diastolic, which measures the pressure on your blood vessels between beats when the heart is at rest.
For example, a reading of 110/70 is within normal range for blood pressure 126/72 is an elevated blood pressure a reading of 135/85 is stage 1 hypertension, and so on .
|Hypertensive Crisis||180/120 mmHg or higher|
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Older Adults Are More At Risk
Overall, adults with a history of epilepsy are much more likely to report that theyve had a stroke compared to people who have never had epilepsy.4 This is especially true in people aged 45 or older, those with lower incomes, and those who have a history of high blood pressure.4 A CDC study found that about 23% of adults aged 65 or older with a history of epilepsy reported having had a stroke, compared to only about 5% of older adults without a history of epilepsy.
New epilepsy is also more likely to develop in older adults than younger adults.5 Stroke causes up to half of new epilepsy cases in older adults for which a cause can be identified.5 This makes stroke one of the most common reasons people develop epilepsy as they age.5
Seizures may be hard to recognize in older adults and may be overlooked. For instance, trouble with memory, confusion, falls, dizziness, or numbness may be viewed as normal aging problems. However, these can actually be symptoms of seizures and are not normal.5 Older adults who have had a stroke, and their caregivers, should watch for these symptoms.
To learn more about recognizing seizures in older adults, take the Epilepsy Foundations Seniors and Seizures trainingexternal icon.
Do you know what to do if someone has a seizure? Learn seizure first aid.
Prevent epilepsy by preventing stroke!
What Is A Seizure
A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled movement of the body caused by abnormal brain activity. Some dogs may have partial seizures, involving only a limited portion of the body. Many dogs have generalized, or tonic-clonic seizures, involving movements of the entire body and a loss of consciousness.
“A seizure is a sudden, uncontrolled movement of the body caused by abnormal brain activity.”
Seizures can be caused by a number of underlying conditions. The most common cause of seizures is idiopathic epilepsy, an inherited condition that results in increased excitability of the brains neurons. Dogs with idiopathic epilepsy typically have their first seizure between the ages of six months and six years. In addition to idiopathic epilepsy, other causes of seizures include toxins, liver or kidney disease, head trauma, or brain tumors.
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How Are Seizures Diagnosed In A Child
The healthcare provider will ask about your childs symptoms and health history. Youll be asked about other factors that may have caused your childs seizure, such as:
Recent fever or infection
Your child may also have:
A neurological exam
Blood tests to check for problems in blood sugar and other factors
Imaging tests of the brain, such as a magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan
Electroencephalogram to test the electrical activity in your childs brain
Lumbar puncture to measure the pressure in the brain and spinal canal and test the cerebrospinal fluid for infection or other problems
What To Expect At Your Office Visit
A person who has had a new or severe seizure is usually seen in a hospital emergency room. The provider will try to diagnose the type of seizure based on the symptoms.
Tests will be done to rule out other medical conditions that cause seizures or similar symptoms. This may include fainting, transient ischemic attack or stroke, panic attacks, migraine headaches, sleep disturbances, and other possible causes.
Tests that may be ordered include:
- Blood and urine tests
- CT scan of the head or MRI of the head
- Lumbar puncture
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When To Contact A Medical Professional
- This is the first time the person has had a seizure
- A seizure lasts more than 2 to 5 minutes
- The person does not awaken or have normal behavior after a seizure
- Another seizure starts soon after a seizure ends
- The person had a seizure in water
- The person is pregnant, injured, or has diabetes
- The person does not have a medical ID bracelet
- There is anything different about this seizure compared to the person’s usual seizures
Report all seizures to the person’s provider. The provider may need to adjust or change the person’s medicines.
Seizures And Stages In The Alcohol Withdrawal Process
To better understand the development of alcohol withdrawal seizures, it is helpful to learn about the various stages of alcohol withdrawal. According to the report in Drugs, initial withdrawal symptoms, which begin six to 12 hours after a person stops drinking, are relatively mild and include elevated blood pressure and heart rate, sweating, tremors, and nausea/vomiting. Following these symptoms, a patient may develop visual, auditory, and tactile hallucinations 12 hours to one day after giving up drinking.
When do alcohol withdrawal seizures begin?
It is in the third stage of alcohol withdrawal that seizures begin, one to two days after the patient consumes his or her last alcoholic beverage. In severe cases, a patient may develop a potentially fatal condition called delirium tremens, which typically appears three to four days after the last alcoholic drink. This condition involves psychosis, hallucinations, dangerously high blood pressure, elevated body temperature, more seizures, and in some cases, coma. Per the authors of the report in Drugs, one-third of patients with delirium tremens are simply suffering from a worsening of initial withdrawal seizures.
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When Would High Blood Pressure Cause Seizures
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Differences Between Seizures And Epilepsy
Some important differences between seizures and epileptic seizures include:
- Some medical conditions that cause nonepileptic seizures may be life threatening. A person could potentially die from dehydration, diabetes, or a brain injury.
- When an underlying medical condition causes seizures, a person may have other symptoms prior to the seizure, such as high blood pressure or malnourishment.
- Diagnosing epilepsy requires excluding other syndromes and diseases. When diagnosing some other conditions, a single test may offer clarity. For example, if a person has a seizure and very high blood glucose, a doctor may conclude that uncontrolled diabetes is the culprit.
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What Does A Typical Episode Of Syncope Look Like
A typical syncopal episode will start suddenly, with no aura or pre-ictal phase. Syncope is often triggered by activity, happening while a dog is exerting himself. You may initially notice that your dog appears weak or wobbly, but this is not always observed and, if observed, this period will be short-lived. When the dog collapses, he will go suddenly limp. Like a dog having a seizure, a syncopal dog may urinate or defecate during the episode.
A syncopal dog may move his legs, but these movements are typically associated with the dog trying to get back up off the ground. These movements are in contrast to the paddling, rhythmic leg movements that are more commonly associated with a seizure. Syncopal dogs typically will not have chewing-gum motions of the jaw or increased salivation. The episode will end within seconds to minutes and the dog will recover rapidly, with no post-ictal period of disorientation.
How Can I Help My Child Live With Epilepsy
You can help your child with epilepsy manage his or her health:
If age-appropriate, make sure your child understands the type of seizure he or she has and the type of medicine that is needed.
Know the dose, time, and side effects of all medicines. Give your child medicine exactly as directed.
Talk with your child’s healthcare provider before giving your child other medicines. Medicines for seizures can interact with many other medicines. This can cause the medicines to not work well, or cause side effects.
Help your child avoid anything that may trigger a seizure. Make sure your child gets enough sleep, as lack of sleep can trigger a seizure.
Make sure your child visits his or her healthcare provider regularly. Have your child tested as often as needed.
Keep in mind that your child may not need medicine for life. Talk with the healthcare provider if your child has had no seizures for 1 to 2 years.
If your childs seizures are controlled well, you may not need many restrictions on activities. Make sure your child wears a helmet for sports such as skating, hockey, and bike riding. Make sure your child has adult supervision while swimming.
Seizures may affect your child’s ability to drive a vehicle. Talk with your child’s healthcare provider about the laws in your state.
Girls with epilepsy should talk with their healthcare provider about the effect of seizures on birth control and family planning.
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What Is Known About Seizures And Blood Pressure
Currently, not too much is known about blood pressure and seizures. We do not know for certain whether blood pressure could affect seizures or whether having a seizure would then affect blood pressure. However, research is being done, and it is now possible to utilize noninvasive measures to determine the blood pressure around the time of a seizure.
Common Causes Of Drug
Senior Care Consultant Pharmacist and President of MZ Associates, Inc.Norwich, New YorkRecipient of the Excellence in Geriatric Pharmacy Practice Award from the Commissionfor Certification in Geriatric Pharmacy.
US Pharm. 2010 35:20-23.
It has been established that the elderly, particularly those with some degree of neurologic disease, are especially susceptible to the actions of medications.1 In light of the ubiquity of polypharmacy in seniors, this column has previously presented an overview of the causes of seizures in the elderly with reference to the risk of drug-induced events.2 In this issue, which focuses on neurologic diseases, a narrower discussion regarding seizures will be presented. The scope is a focus on specific agents associated with drug-induced seizures. Recognizing their potential risk and raising awareness about this problem may assist with the development of appropriate medication regimens and associated monitoring parameters to better tailor the pharmaceutical care plan to the individual patient.
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Neural Control Of Blood Pressure
The major determinant of oxygen and metabolite supply of tissues and organs is the blood perfusion which is regionally controlled by activity-dependent mechanisms. The overall perfusion of the body’s organs is secured by the systemic BP. Arterial BP is defined as the pressure exerted by the blood on the artery walls . By convention it is measured in millimeters of mercury above the surrounding atmospheric pressure. Mean arterial blood pressure is determined by the product of cardiac output and total peripheral resistance while CO is, in turn, the product of stroke volume and heart rate . The systemic BP shows a pulsatile profile due to the contraction of the cardiac cycle and the elastic behavior of the artery walls the maximal pressure during heart contraction is named systolic arterial pressure , the minimal pressure between two heart contractions as the diastolic arterial pressure . To secure appropriate energy and oxygen supply, systemic BP is constantly maintained within given limits by regulatory pathways involving the autonomic nervous system. Our current knowledge on the neural control of blood pressure comes from decades of experimental research in animals, clinicopathological correlations in humans, mostly with stroke or epilepsy, electrical stimulation studies in humans with epilepsy and functional imaging studies in humans .