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What Does Essential Hypertension Mean

What’s The Impact Of Having High Blood Pressure

All there is to know about essential hypertension

High blood pressure is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases such as:

  • coronary heart disease – where the main arteries that supply your heart become clogged up with plaques
  • strokes – a serious condition where the blood supply to your brain is interrupted
  • heart attacks – a serious condition where the blood supply to part of your heart is blocked

Diabetes and kidney disease are also linked to high blood pressure complications.

What Is The Outlook For Those With Secondary Hypertension

Secondary hypertension has a positive outlook with treatment. Early detection and treatment can help minimize the possibility of serious damage due to abnormal blood vessel shape or tumors.

Hypertension can become more common as patients age. It is not uncommon for patients to need to be continuously treated for high blood pressure, even after the underlying condition of their secondary hypertension has been treated.

Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/03/2019.

References

Blood Pressure Checks During Pregnancy

If you are pregnant, you should have your blood pressure checked on a regular basis, even if it is not high.

Watching your blood pressure while you are pregnant reduces your risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension. This can lead to a serious condition called pre-eclampsia where there is a problem with the placenta .

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What Medications Are Used To Treat High Blood Pressure

Four classes of high blood pressure medications are considered first line when starting treatment. Sometimes other medications are coupled with these first-line drugs to better control your high blood pressure. First-line drug pressure lowering medications are:

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors block the production the angiotensin II hormone, which the body naturally uses to control blood pressure. When angiotensin II is blocked, your blood vessels dont narrow. Examples: lisinopril , enalapril , captopril .
  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers block this same hormone from binding with receptors in the blood vessels. ARBs work the same way as ACE inhibitors to keep blood vessels from narrowing. Examples: metoprolol , valsartan , losartan .
  • Calcium channel blockers prevent calcium from entering the muscle cells of your heart and blood vessels, allowing these vessels to relax. Examples: amlodipine , nifedipine , diltiazem .
  • Diuretics flush excess sodium from your body, reducing the amount of fluid in your blood. Diuretics are often used with other high blood pressure medicines, sometimes in one combined pill. Examples: indapamide, hydrochlorothiazide, chlorothiazide.

What Are The Risks Of Resistant Hypertension

Management of Hypertension

Over time, uncontrolled hypertension damages the arteries, contributing to their stiffening. As the arteries become narrower and less flexible, the heart has to work harder to move blood through the body. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure and other heart conditions cause damage to your kidneys, memory and vision and contribute to erectile dysfunction.

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What Is The Difference Between Primary And Secondary Hypertension

From another perspective, hypertension may be categorized as either essential or secondary. Primary hypertension is diagnosed in the absence of an identifiable secondary cause. Approximately 90-95% of adults with hypertension have primary hypertension, whereas secondary hypertension accounts for around 5-10% of the cases. However, secondary forms of hypertension, such as primary hyperaldosteronism, account for 20% of resistant hypertension .

How Will I Know If I Have Essential Hypertension

Blood pressure checks are the best way to screen for the condition. Its important to understand how to take your blood pressure and read the results.

Blood pressure readings have two numbers, usually written this way: 120/80. The first number is your systolic pressure. Systolic pressure measures the force of blood against your artery walls as your heart pumps blood to the rest of your body.

The second number measures your diastolic pressure. Diastolic pressure measures the force of your blood against your artery walls between heartbeats, as the heart muscle relaxes. Learn more about systolic and diastolic pressure.

Your blood pressure readings can fluctuate up or down throughout the day. They change after exercise, during rest, when youre in pain, and even when youre stressed out or angry. Occasional high blood pressure readings dont necessarily mean you have hypertension. You wont receive a diagnosis of hypertension unless you have high blood pressure readings at least two to three different times.

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What Do I Need To Know About The Stages Of Hypertension

  • Normal blood pressure is 119/79 or lower . Your healthcare provider may only check your blood pressure each year if it stays at a normal level.
  • Elevated blood pressure is 120/79 to 129/79 . This is sometimes called prehypertension. Your healthcare provider may suggest lifestyle changes to help lower your blood pressure to a normal level. He or she may then check it again in 3 to 6 months.
  • Stage 1 hypertension is 130/80 to 139/89 . Your provider may recommend lifestyle changes, medication, and checks every 3 to 6 months until your blood pressure is controlled.
  • Stage 2 hypertension is 140/90 or higher . Your provider will recommend lifestyle changes and have you take 2 kinds of hypertension medicines. You will also need to have your blood pressure checked monthly until it is controlled.

How Is Malignant Hypertension Treated

RADIANCE-HTN-TRIO: what does this mean for the treatment of hypertension? – EuroPCR 2021

Malignant hypertension is a medical emergency and needs to be treated in a hospital, often in an intensive care unit. The doctor will consider your symptoms and overall health when deciding what treatment plan is best for you. The goal of treatment is to carefully lower your blood pressure within a matter of minutes.

You will receive blood pressure medicines through an IV, which is the quickest way to treat extremely high blood pressure. Once blood pressure is at a safe level, the medications may be switched to oral forms. If you develop kidney failure, you may need kidney dialysis.

Other treatments depend on your specific symptoms and possible causes of the malignant hypertension.

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How Is Secondary Hypertension Treated

In order to treat secondary hypertension, your doctor will address the underlying condition or disorder.

When the root cause of secondary hypertension is treated, blood pressure usually lowers or returns to normal.

In cases where narrowed arteries are the cause of high blood pressure you may need surgery.

Your doctor may also choose to treat you with blood pressure drugs in addition to addressing the underlying health issues.

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About High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is usually defined as having a sustained blood pressure of 140/90mmHg or above.

The line between normal and raised blood pressure is not fixed and depends on your individual circumstances. However, most doctors agree that the ideal blood pressure for a physically healthy person is around 120/80mmHg.

A normal blood pressure reading is classed as less than 130/80mmHg.

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What Diet Helps Control High Blood Pressure

  • Eat foods that are lower in fat, salt and calories, such as skim or 1% milk, fresh vegetables and fruits, and whole grain rice, and pasta.
  • Use flavorings, spices and herbs to make foods tasty without using salt. The optimal recommendation for salt in your diet is to have less than 1500 milligrams of sodium a day. Don’t forget that most restaurant foods and many processed and frozen foods contain high levels of salt. Use herbs and spices that do not contain salt in recipes to flavor your food do not add salt at the table.
  • Avoid or cut down on butter and margarine, regular salad dressings, fatty meats, whole milk dairy products, fried foods, processed foods or fast foods, and salted snacks.
  • Ask your provider if you should increase potassium in your diet Discuss the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet with your provider. The DASH diet emphasizes adding fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to your diet while reducing the amount of sodium. Since it is rich in fruits and vegetables, which are naturally lower in sodium than many other foods, the DASH diet makes it easier to eat less salt and sodium.

Stroke And Brain Problems

Hypertension

High blood pressure can cause the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the brain to burst or be blocked, causing a stroke. Brain cells die during a stroke because they do not get enough oxygen. Stroke can cause serious disabilities in speech, movement, and other basic activities. A stroke can also kill you.

Having high blood pressure, especially in midlife, is linked to having poorer cognitive function and dementia later in life. Learn more about the link between high blood pressure and dementia from the National Institutes of Healths Mind Your Risks®external icon campaign.

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What Are The Different Types Of High Blood Pressure

There are two main types of high blood pressure: primary and secondary high blood pressure.

  • Primary, or essential, high blood pressure is the most common type of high blood pressure. For most people who get this kind of blood pressure, it develops over time as you get older.
  • Secondary high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or use of certain medicines. It usually gets better after you treat that condition or stop taking the medicines that are causing it.

How Is Resistant Hypertension Diagnosed

  • Full history and physical exam, which includes letting your doctor know about all medications and supplements, whether they are prescription, over-the-counter, herbal or recreational. Its important to mention if you skip doses of daily medicines.
  • True measurement of your blood pressure using correct technique and calibrated equipment.
  • Home blood pressure measurement during the day and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to record your blood pressure throughout a regular day. It may be used if your physician suspects your blood pressure readings in the office dont tell the whole story.
  • Tests for secondary conditions, which may include special blood work and imaging studies. Identifying and treating these conditions may eliminate hypertension or at least make it more treatable.
  • Tests for organ damage caused by hypertension, which may include:
  • Electrocardiogram to measure your hearts size and rhythm
  • Echocardiogram to measure your hearts size and function
  • Fundoscopic eye exam to check for damaged blood vessels inside the eye these tiny blood vessels come in from the brain and are a unique opportunity for your doctor to judge the health of similar blood vessels in your brain, heart and kidneys
  • Urinalysis to check for kidney damage
  • Other blood tests
  • Chest X-ray

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Drink Alcohol In Moderation

Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol will increase your blood pressure and raise the cholesterol levels in your blood.

Sticking to the recommended amounts of alcohol consumption is the best way to reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure.

The recommended daily limits of alcohol consumption are:

  • 3 to 4 units of alcohol for men
  • 2 to 3 units of alcohol for women.

A unit of alcohol is equal to about half a pint of normal-strength lager, a small glass of wine or a pub measure or spirits.

More about drinking alcohol reponsibly

Symptoms Of Essential Hypertension

What Do the New Hypertension Guidelines Mean to Me?

In most cases, there will be no apparent symptoms of essential hypertension, and it will only be discovered during a regular medical examination. If essential hypertension is not diagnosed, the condition has the potential to worsen and create heart or kidney problems.

Sometimes, people with essential hypertension may experience headaches, dizziness and blurred vision, but these symptoms are unlikely to occur until blood pressure reaches very high levels. Some people report that their heartbeat seems louder than usual and feels as if it is inside the ear this may be more prominent the higher the blood pressure is. People experiencing symptoms that may be linked to hypertension can use the free Ada app for a symptom assessment.

If a person experiences vomiting or nausea, severe headaches, vision changes or nosebleeds, it may be a sign of malignant hypertension â a much more dangerous type of high blood pressure.If these symptoms appear, urgent medical attention should be sought.

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Can Anxiety Cause High Blood Pressure

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  • Bananas.

Fluctuating blood pressure can be caused by several issues.

  • Stress. Emotional stress and anxiety can temporarily increase blood pressure.
  • White-coat syndrome.
  • Medication. Both over-the-counter and prescription medications can impact your blood pressure.
  • Activity.

What Causes Malignant Hypertension

In many people, high blood pressure is the main cause of malignant hypertension. Missing doses of blood pressure medications can also cause it. In addition, there are certain medical conditions that can cause it. They include:

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What Are The Symptoms

One of the sneaky things about high blood pressure is that you can have it for a long time without symptoms. That’s why it is important for you have your blood pressure checked at least once a year.

If you do have symptoms, they may be:

  • headaches

Although it happens rarely, the first symptom may be a stroke.

What Are The Complications Of Uncontrolled Hypertension

Hypertension
  • Chest pain, also called angina.
  • Heart attack, which occurs when the blood supply to the heart is blocked and heart muscle cells die from lack of oxygen. The longer the blood flow is blocked, the greater the damage to the heart.
  • Heart failure, which occurs when the heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to other vital body organs.
  • Irregular heart beat which can lead to a sudden death.

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How Is Blood Pressure Measured

Blood pressure is defined as the amount of pressure that is exerted on the artery walls as blood moves through them. It is measured in millimetres of mercury, or mmHg.

A more detailed explanation is provided below.

Two measurements are used to measure blood pressure:

  • Systolic pressure – the measure of blood pressure exerted when your heart beats and forces blood around your body.
  • Diastolic pressure – the measure of blood pressure when your heart is resting in between beats.

Both the systolic and diastolic pressures are measured in millimetres of mercury .

The figures are usually represented with the systolic pressure first, followed by the diastolic pressure. Therefore, if your GP says that your blood pressure is ‘120 over 80’, or 120/80mmHg, they mean that you have a systolic pressure of 120mmHg and a diastolic pressure of 80mmHg.

What Does Unspecified Essential Hypertension Mean

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Subsequently, one may also ask, what are the symptoms of essential hypertension?

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure

  • Severe headache.
  • Blood in the urine.
  • Pounding in your chest, neck, or ears.

Furthermore, what does it mean to have benign hypertension? Term “benign hypertensionis usually slight to moderate severity and of long duration it does not imply etiology, although most often it is considered “essential” hypertension. Benign nephrosclerosis is the term applied to the renal changes seen with long-standing benign hypertension. Usually asymptomatic.

Moreover, what is the most common cause of essential hypertension?

Essential hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that has no clearly identifiable cause, but is thought to be linked to genetics, poor diet, lack of exercise and obesity. It is by far the most common form of high blood pressure, affecting the majority of those who experience hypertension.

What is non essential hypertension?

Secondary hypertension differs from the usual type of high blood pressure , which is often referred to simply as high blood pressure. Primary hypertension has no clear cause and is thought to be linked to genetics, poor diet, lack of exercise and obesity.

How is essential hypertension treated?

  • Exercise at least 30 minutes a day.
  • Lose weight if you’re overweight.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Reduce your stress levels.
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    How Is High Blood Pressure Diagnosed

    High blood pressure usually has no symptoms. So the only way to find out if you have it is to get regular blood pressure checks from your health care provider. Your provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. He or she will take two or more readings at separate appointments before making a diagnosis.

    Blood Pressure Category
    and 120 or higher

    For children and teens, the health care provider compares the blood pressure reading to what is normal for other kids who are the same age, height, and sex.

    How Is It Diagnosed

    What is Hypertension

    Because it is such a common problem, blood pressure is checked at most healthcare visits. High blood pressure is usually discovered during one of these visits. If your blood pressure is high, you will be asked to return for follow-up checks. If repeated checks of your blood pressure show that it is higher than 140/90, you have hypertension.

    Your healthcare provider will ask about your life situation, what you eat and drink, and if high blood pressure runs in your family. You may have urine and blood tests. Your provider may order a chest X-ray and an electrocardiogram . You may be asked to use a portable blood-pressure measuring device, which will take your pressure at different times during day and night. All of this testing is done to look for a possible cause of your high blood pressure.

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    What Are The Symptoms Of Secondary Hypertension

    Symptoms of secondary hypertension can vary depending on the type of condition or disease that is acting in combination with high blood pressure. Additionally, there may be difficulty controlling high blood pressure by using just one or two medications. The American Heart Association guidelines now define high blood pressure as blood pressure reading 130/80 or higher.

    Examples of symptoms for some conditions can include:

    • Pheochromocytoma: Sweating, increased frequency or force of heartbeats, headache, anxiety
    • Cushings syndrome: Weight gain, weakness, abnormal growth of body hair or loss of menstrual periods , purple striations on the skin of the abdomen
    • Thyroid problems: Fatigue , weight gain or weight loss, intolerance to heat or cold
    • Conns syndrome or primary aldosteronism: Weakness due to low levels of potassium in the body
    • Obstructive sleep apnea: excessive fatigue or sleepiness during daytime, snoring, pauses in breathing during sleep

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