Sweet Pressure: Scientists Discover Link Between High Blood Pressure And Diabetes
- University of Bristol
- The long-standing enigma of why so many patients suffering with high blood pressure also have diabetes has finally been cracked by an international team.
The long-standing enigma of why so many patients suffering with high blood pressure also have diabetes has finally been cracked by an international team led by the universities of Bristol, UK, and Auckland, New Zealand.
The important new discovery has shown that a small protein cell glucagon-like peptide-1 couples the body’s control of blood sugar and blood pressure.
Professor Julian Paton, a senior author, and Director of Manaaki Mãnawa — The Centre for Heart Research at the University of Auckland, said: “We’ve known for a long time that hypertension and diabetes are inextricably linked and have finally discovered the reason, which will now inform new treatment strategies.”
The research, published online ahead of print in Circulation Research today , involved contributions from collaborating scientists in Brazil, Germany, Lithuania, and Serbia, as well as the UK and New Zealand.
GLP-1 is released from the wall of the gut after eating and acts to stimulate insulin from the pancreas to control blood sugar levels. This was known but what has now been unearthed is that GLP-1 also stimulates a small sensory organ called the carotid body located in the neck.
The study was funded by the British Heart Foundation and the Health Research Council of New Zealand.
Treating High Blood Pressure
Once high blood pressure is diagnosed, a treatment program should begin immediately. In cases where the blood pressure is very elevated , drug therapy is often initiated right away while lab tests and x-ray studies are obtained. When a person is found to have secondary hypertension, treatment is directed at the cause. For example, if a person is found to have a kidney artery blockage causing hypertension, he will be considered for a procedure to open the blocked kidney artery.
If a curable form of hypertension is found and treated, long-term drug therapy may be avoided. However, in many cases, treatment of the cause does not lead to complete resolution of the elevated blood pressure, and some blood pressure drugs are still needed to keep the blood pressure at goal level .
According to a national committee on hypertension, two of the most important aspects to successfully treating high blood pressure are a trusting relationship with your doctor and the motivation to succeed. Setting goals is the next step and when diabetes and hypertension coexist, the goal is to consistently maintain a blood pressure level lower than 140/90 mm Hg. Lifestyle changes are central to improving blood pressure control in hopes of avoiding or reducing the need for medicines. A heart-healthy lifestyle also improves the effectiveness of medicines when they are needed.
Oxidative Stress And Nox
Oxidative stress is a key mechanism of glucotoxicity in diabetes, as evidenced by increased vascular ROS generation in response to hyperglycemia and accumulation of oxidation by-products of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.27 NADPH oxidases and dysfunctional endothelial nitric oxide synthase are principal sources of increased ROS in human vasculature in T2D.48, 49 ROS interact with DNA and stimulate many redox-sensitive signalling pathways that lead to inflammation, fibrosis, and vascular damage. Increased vascular oxidative stress in diabetes and hypertension promotes posttranslational oxidative modification of proteins, causing cellular damage and vascular dysfunction. Hyperglycemia also induces activation of redox-sensitive protein kinase C and polyol and hexosamine pathways, further contributing to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and consequent cellular damage.50 Oxidative stress is also associated with reduced bioavailability of the vasodilator nitric oxide, causing endothelial dysfunction.
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Sugar And High Blood Pressure
You might have seen the headlines in the papers a week or so ago: quickest way to lower blood pressure, shouts the Daily Express and so on.
So whats the secret? Well, its simple. Its sugar.
Or rather its avoiding sugar thats key to lowering your blood pressure at least if youre getting too much sugar which most of us are.
Sugar and high blood pressure: the evidence
Since when has there been a link between sugar and high blood pressure? you might ask. Surely salts the one to cut down on. Well, many studies are now showing that sugar is far worse for your blood pressure and pretty much every other aspect of your health than salt. Which is not to say dont be careful with salt but be very very careful with sugar.
Easier said than done though, but well come to that shortly. First of all, whats the evidence relating to sugar and high blood pressure?
The study that recent newspaper headlines have been reporting was conducted in San Francisco on obese children. 43 obese kids with high blood pressure were put on a different diet which contained much less sugar but the same amount overall of calories, fat, protein, and carbohydrates .
The researchers found that the kids blood pressure dropped, their weight dropped, their cholesterol levels dropped, their blood sugar levels dropped in fact all kinds of unhealthy levels fell in just nine days !
Why is there a link between sugar and high blood pressure?
How to reduce sugar and high blood pressure
What Are The Symptoms Of Hyperglycemia
Its especially important to know the early signs of hyperglycemia if you have type 1 diabetes. If hyperglycemia is left untreated in people with type 1 diabetes, it can develop into ketoacidosis, where ketones, which are toxic acids, build up in the blood. This condition is an emergency situation that can lead to coma or death.
Early symptoms of hyperglycemia include:
- High blood sugar.
- Unusual fruity smell on the breath.
- Deep labored breathing or hyperventilation.
- Rapid heartbeat.
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Causes Of Low Blood Glucose
Low blood glucose is common for people with type 1 diabetes and can occur in people with type 2 diabetes taking insulin or certain medications. The average person with type 1 diabetes may experience up to two episodes of mild low blood glucose each week, and thats only counting episodes with symptoms. If you add in lows without symptoms and the ones that happen overnight, the number would likely be higher.
Why Does Blood Sugar Go Down After Eating
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Diabetes And High Blood Pressure: What Is The Relationship
Your blood pressure is one of the most important markers of health especially as a person with any type of diabetes.
High blood pressure is very common in people with diabetes. In fact, the two conditions often go hand-in-hand because they can both result from the same lifestyle factors.
In this article, well discuss what high blood pressure is and what causes it, what is a healthy blood pressure measurement, the link between diabetes and high blood pressure, and what you can do to prevent or lower high blood pressure levels.
Approach To The Patient
Most patients with diabetes require combination therapy to attain a blood pressure of less than 130/80 mm Hg.2,79 Antihypertensive medications with different mechanisms of action should be used. Many fixed-dose combinations are available and should be considered if more than one agent is needed to control blood pressure.3Figure 1 provides a suggested approach to the management of hypertension in patients with diabetes.79
When the target blood pressure is not achieved with lifestyle modifications, ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line therapy.2,8,9 ARBs may be used in patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors. If adequate titration of the ACE inhibitor or ARB does not provide satisfactory blood pressure reduction, the addition of a thiazide diuretic is the next step.8,9 In patients with significant renal insufficiency, a loop diuretic may be used instead however, there is not sufficient data from clinical trials to support this recommendation. For most patients, beta blockers or CCBs are third-line agents.9
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Diabetic Injections Medications Images
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Common Causes And Risk Factors For High Blood Pressure And Diabetes
We already covered the causes of high blood pressure.
Hypertension and diabetes very often occur along and might have some common causes, like obesity, inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance.
Obesity is a global problem, which is identified as the highest risk for developing both, hypertension and diabetes.
A person with diabetes might have less insulin, or their insulin may not function appropriately.
The hormone insulin helps the body to process glucose from food and use it as energy. If a person experience issues with producing insulin, glucose is not providing required amounts of energy, or excess amounts of glucose accumulate in the bloodstream.
Blood full of glucose that travels tough the body can cause colossal damage to kidney and blood vessels. These organs play a significant role in maintaining a healthy blood pressure level, and if those organs are damaged, inevitably blood pressure rises, and further complications may occur.
Also, common risk factors for both diseases include:
- inactive or sedentary lifestyle,
- low levels of vitamin D, and
- consuming tobacco.
Researches interpreted that people with elevated blood pressure are at a higher risk of diabetes.
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What Nuts Lower Blood Sugar
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Can Diabetes Cause High Blood Pressure
Diabetes and high blood pressure often occur together. A person with diabetes is twice as likely to have high blood pressure as a person without diabetes.Diabetes damages the arteries and makes them targets for hardening, called atherosclerosis. This can cause high blood pressure, which, if left untreated, can lead to problems including damage to blood vessels, heart attack, and kidney failure.In this article we will talk about hypertension and diabetes, as well as discuss ways to prevent these problems.
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Risk Factors For High Blood Pressure With Diabetes
According to the ADA, the combination of high blood pressure and type 2 diabetes is particularly lethal and can significantly raise your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. Having type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure also increases your chances of developing other diabetes-related diseases, such as kidney disease and retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy may cause blindness.
Theres also significant evidence to show that chronic high blood pressure can speed the arrival of problems with the ability to think that are associated with aging, such as Alzheimers disease and dementia. According to the AHA, blood vessels in the brain are particularly susceptible to damage due to high blood pressure. This makes it a major risk factor for stroke and dementia.
Uncontrolled diabetes isnt the only health factor that increases risk for high blood pressure. Remember, your chances of having a heart attack or stroke increase exponentially if you have more than one of the following risk factors:
Low Blood Sugar Do They Give Medications
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What Is Heart Disease
Heart disease includes several kinds of problems that affect your heart. The term cardiovascular disease is similar but includes all types of heart disease, stroke, and blood vessel disease. The most common type is coronary artery disease, which affects blood flow to the heart.
Coronary artery disease is caused by the buildup of plaque in the walls of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply oxygen and blood to the heart. Plaque is made of cholesterol deposits, which make the inside of arteries narrow and decrease blood flow. This process is called atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Decreased blood flow to the heart can cause a heart attack. Decreased blood flow to the brain can cause a stroke.
Hardening of the arteries can happen in other parts of the body too. In the legs and feet, its called peripheral arterial disease, or PAD. PAD is often the first sign that a person with diabetes has cardiovascular disease.
Your Blood Pressure Results
Youll get your results straight away. The reading on the monitor lets your healthcare team know whether your blood pressure is too high, too low or just right. But its important you understand your results too. Make a note of your reading at each appointment and get to know what the numbers mean.
Your healthcare team will agree a target level thats safe for you. Its important you do everything you can to keep in your target range. The longer your blood pressure is high, the more at risk you are of getting serious complications. Weve got lots of information and advice to help you bring your to the target level you’ve agreed with your healthcare team.
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