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What Is Systemic Blood Pressure

Measurement Of Blood Pressure

What is blood pressure? | Circulatory system physiology | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Blood pressure is one of the critical parameters measured on virtually every patient in every healthcare setting. The technique used today was developed more than 100 years ago by a pioneering Russian physician, Dr. Nikolai Korotkoff. Turbulent blood flow through the vessels can be heard as a soft ticking while measuring blood pressure these sounds are known as Korotkoff sounds. The technique of measuring blood pressure requires the use of a sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope. The technique is as follows:

  • The clinician wraps an inflatable cuff tightly around the patients arm at about the level of the heart.
  • The clinician squeezes a rubber pump to inject air into the cuff, raising pressure around the artery and temporarilycutting off blood flow into the patients arm.
  • The clinician places the stethoscope on the patients antecubital region and, while gradually allowing air within the cuff to escape, listens for the Korotkoff sounds.

Figure 3. When pressure in a sphygmomanometer cuff is released, a clinician can hear the Korotkoff sounds. In this graph, a blood pressure tracing is aligned to a measurement of systolic and diastolic pressures.

The majority of hospitals and clinics have automated equipment for measuring blood pressure that work on the same principles. An even more recent innovation is a small instrument that wraps around a patients wrist. The patient then holds the wrist over the heart while the device measures blood flow and records pressure .

Most People With Hypertension Feel Okay

Hypertension usually does not produce any symptoms, because the organs of the body can resist high blood pressure for a long time. Thats why its important to have regular medical examinations to make sure your blood pressure isnt creeping up as you grow older.High blood pressure over a period of time can contribute to many illnesses, including:

  • heart attack

The effects of high blood pressure on the arteries are worsened by:

  • cigarette smoking
  • high levels of saturated fat in the diet
  • high blood cholesterol
  • diabetes.

Responses to some types of stress may affect both blood pressure and changes in the arteries, but this remains scientifically uncertain.

Blood Pressure And Ageing

With advancing years, the arteries tend to become more rigid . This may change a persons blood pressure pattern, with a higher systolic pressure and a lower diastolic pressure. The higher systolic pressure is important because it can further accelerate the rigidity of the arteries. This state is referred to as isolated systolic hypertension. Although these changes are due to ageing, this is not a normal state and may need medication to control the systolic pressures.

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Ph Associated With Congenital Heart Disease

A child may be born with a hole in the septum of the heart. The septum is the wall that separates the right and left side of the heart.

If the hole is between the two upper chambers, it is called atrial septal defect . Most ASDs are repaired during childhood however, it is possible to repair these holes at any age if there is little to no signs of pulmonary hypertension that exists.

If the hole is between the two lower chambers it is called a ventricular septal defect. . Ventricular septal defects are the most common congenital heart defects. When a defect is present, blood can flow across the hole from the left side of the heart to the right. Children born with VSDs are more likely to develop pulmonary hypertension than those with ASDs if they are not closed early in life. The reason is because there is excessive blood flow and pressure through the hole into the right side of the heart and lungs that results in enlargement of both the right atrium and ventricle. Over time the extra blood flow into the lungs causes damage to the blood vessels resulting in pulmonary hypertension.

What Do Blood Pressure Numbers Mean

20.2 Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance  Anatomy and Physiology

Blood pressure is measured using two numbers:

The first number, called systolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats.

The second number, called diastolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart rests between beats.

If the measurement reads 120 systolic and 80 diastolic, you would say, 120 over 80, or write, 120/80 mmHg.

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Does Smoking Weed Lower Blood Pressure

There is some research to suggest that smoking weed can lower blood pressure. Astudy looking at the Cardiovascular Pharmacology of Cannabinoids found that chronic use of cannabis in man, as well as both acute and prolonged administration of THC to experimental animals, elicit a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure and heart rate.

Anotherstudy designed to look at the Effects of Tetrahydrocannabinol on Arterial and Intraocular Hypertension found that the inhalation of 2.8% THC resulted in an initial increase in heart rate followed by a decrease in systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, and intraocular pressure.

Ocular Pulse Amplitude And Bp Measurement

Figure 1

Dynamic contour tonometry measurements were taken at the slit-lamp in a seated position after a 5-min rest period. The blood pressure cuff was placed on the mid-phalanx of the middle finger of the opposite hand to the study eye. Arterial pressure was measured continuously in reference to a previous calibration with a cuff on the upper arm. Inset: A custom-made light-sensitive microsensor was mounted on the liquid crystal display of the DCT device and connected to the Finometer® for simultaneous measurement of ocular pulse amplitude and cardiovascular parameters.

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The Roles Of Vessel Diameter And Total Area In Blood Flow And Blood Pressure

Recall that we classified arterioles as resistance vessels, because given their small lumen, they dramatically slow the flow of blood from arteries. In fact, arterioles are the site of greatest resistance in the entire vascular network. This may seem surprising, given that capillaries have a smaller size. How can this phenomenon be explained?

Figure 4 compares vessel diameter, total cross-sectional area, average blood pressure, and blood velocity through the systemic vessels. Notice in parts and that the total cross-sectional area of the bodys capillary beds is far greater than any other type of vessel. Although the diameter of an individual capillary is significantly smaller than the diameter of an arteriole, there are vastly more capillaries in the body than there are other types of blood vessels. Part shows that blood pressure drops unevenly as blood travels from arteries to arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins, and encounters greater resistance. However, the site of the most precipitous drop, and the site of greatest resistance, is the arterioles. This explains why vasodilation and vasoconstriction of arterioles play more significant roles in regulating blood pressure than do the vasodilation and vasoconstriction of other vessels.

Figure 4. The relationships among blood vessels that can be compared include vessel diameter, total cross-sectional area, average blood pressure, and velocity of blood flow.

Ph Associated With Chronic Thromboembolic/embolic Disease

How blood pressure works – Wilfred Manzano

A thrombus or thromboembolism is a blood clot that blocks the passage of blood through a vessel. If blood clots travel to the lung, the obstruction may lead to pulmonary hypertension. Sometimes blood clots in the lungs do not cause symptoms. Pulmonary Hypertension caused by blood clots is rare and may require surgical removal of the clots by a procedure called thromboendarterectomy.

There are many diseases that can cause pulmonary hypertension . The following is a brief explanation of each of these conditions.

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Normal Blood Pressure Range By Age And Sex

Normal blood pressure is also affected by sex, as men have a slightly higher healthy range than women. The normal BP ranges for men and women of different ages are listed below.

21-25 years old: Systolic BP: of 120.5, Diastolic BP of 78.5

26-30 years old: Systolic BP: of 119.5, Diastolic BP of 76.5

31-35 years old: Systolic BP: of 114.5, Diastolic BP of 75.5

36-40 years old: Systolic BP: of 120.5, Diastolic BP of 75.5

41-45 years old: Systolic BP: of 115.5, Diastolic BP of 78.5

46-50 years old: Systolic BP: of 119.5, Diastolic BP of 80.5

51-55 years old: Systolic BP: of 125.5, Diastolic BP of 80.5

56-60 years old: Systolic BP: of 129.5, Diastolic BP of 79.5

61-65 years old: Systolic BP: of 143.5, Diastolic BP of 76.5

Women

21-25 years old: Systolic BP: of 115.5, Diastolic BP of 70.5

26-30 years old: Systolic BP: of 113.5, Diastolic BP of 71.5

31-35 years old: Systolic BP: of 110.5, Diastolic BP of 72.5

36-40 years old: Systolic BP: of 112.5, Diastolic BP of 74.6

41-45 years old: Systolic BP: of 116.5, Diastolic BP of 73.5

46-50 years old: Systolic BP: of 124, Diastolic BP of 78.5

51-55 years old: Systolic BP: of 122.5, Diastolic BP of 74.5

56-60 years old: Systolic BP: of 132.5, Diastolic BP of 78.5

61-65 years old: Systolic BP: of 130.5, Diastolic BP of 77.5

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Why Both Numbers Are Important

Your blood pressure reading is composed of two numbers . Systolic blood pressure, or the top number, is the amount of force put on the arteries as the heart beats. Diastolic blood pressure is the amount of force on the arteries when the heart is resting.

This article delves into the differences between systolic and diastolic blood pressure, why both numbers are important, and what your blood pressure readings mean.

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Peysh A Patel1* And Noman Ali2

*Corresponding author:Received:Accepted:

Cite this as

Summary

Regulation of the circulatory system to maintain a constant arterial pressure is critical in ensuring adequate perfusion to meet metabolic requirements of tissues. Blood pressure can be considered in the context of Ohms law, whereby BP is directly proportional to the product of cardiac output and total vascular resistance . Acute regulatory mechanisms are coordinated in the cardiovascular control centres in the brainstem, which are themselves influenced by impulses from other neural centres in addition to sensors both intrinsic and extrinsic to the circulation. However, certain organs such as the heart, kidneys and brain have the ability to coordinate blood flow locally, i.e. autoregulate. This enables alterations in regional perfusion without perturbations of BP. This mini-review provides an exploratory discussion of neural and humoral mechanisms that underpin regulation of systemic BP.

Isolated Systolic Hypertension In The Elderly

PPT

Systolic blood pressure rises steadily with age. This is due to the increasing stiffness of large arteries, long-term plaque buildup and an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease.

According to a recent study, persons who reached age 65, if they lived another 20 years, had a 90% lifetime risk of developing isolated systolic hypertension or high blood pressure 5.

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What Are The Complications Of Hypertension

Because hypertension affects the health and function of your arteries, all the organs and tissues in your body are at risk of complications from poorly controlled high blood pressure.

Hypertension can cause your arteries to become stiffer, weaker, and less effective at handling blood flow properly. Some of the many health complications that can stem from hypertension include:

What Can You Do To Prevent High Blood Pressure

You can help lower your risk of high blood pressure by practicing the lifestyle changes mentioned above.

Additionally, consider working with your doctor to carefully manage any preexisting health conditions that can contribute to high blood pressure, such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

You can also monitor your blood pressure at home if youd like to keep a closer eye on changes in your blood pressure outside of your routine checkups.

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When To Call Your Healthcare Provider

A hypertensive crisisdefined as blood pressure above 180/120 mm Hgrequires immediate medical attention. Call 911 if you are also experiencing symptoms such as chest pain, back pain, shortness of breath, difficulty speaking, a change in vision, weakness, or numbness.

Who Gets Isolated Systolic Hypertension

Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) Nursing Mechanism for Blood Pressure

Older people are more likely to have it, because systolic blood pressure usually goes up as you age.

  • More than 30% of women over 65 and more than 20% of men have this condition.
  • If your parents had high blood pressure, you may be more likely to have it.
  • African-Americans are more likely than other groups to have high blood pressure.

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Do I Have High Blood Pressure

Anyone can have high blood pressure. Some medical conditions, such as metabolic syndrome, kidney disease, and thyroid problems, can cause high blood pressure. Some people have a greater chance of having it because of things they cant change. These are:

  • Age. The chance of having high blood pressure increases as you get older, especially isolated systolic hypertension.
  • Gender. Before age 55, men have a greater chance of having high blood pressure. Women are more likely to have high blood pressure after menopause.
  • Family history. High blood pressure tends to run in some families.
  • Race. African Americans are at increased risk for high blood pressure.

High blood pressure often has no signs or symptoms, but routine checks of your blood pressure will help detect increasing levels. If your blood pressure reading is high at two or more check-ups, the doctor may also ask you to measure your blood pressure at home.

There are important considerations for older adults in deciding whether to start treatment for high blood pressure if it is above 130/80, including other health conditions and overall fitness. Your doctor may work with you to find a blood pressure target that is best for your well-being and may suggest exercise, changes in your diet, and medications.

What Time Of Day Should I Check My Blood Pressure

Many experts suggest recording blood pressures that are taken over an extended time before diagnosing high blood pressure.

You should also know that your blood pressure will be different throughout the day. It tends to be highest in the morning and lower at night.

Your provider may want you to take your use a blood pressure monitor multiple days a dayusually once in the morning and once in the afternoon or evening. Try to avoid taking it early in the morning right when you wake up or right after dinner.

Instead, try to take your morning reading before your breakfast and your evening reading when you’re getting ready for bed .

Once you decide what time you’ll check your blood pressure, it’s important that you’re consistent. You’ll get the most accurate results and comparisons if you take your blood pressure at about the same time every day.

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Systemic Arterial Pressure Regulation

Overview
  • Fine-tuned regulation of the systemic arterial pressure is an important physiological priority. Hypotension can result in light-headedness or syncope whereas chronic hypertension can cause severe vascular disease over time. Regulation of the systemic arterial pressure appears to occur on two different time-scales which are coordinated by different physiological systems. Minute-to-minute, short-term control appears to be coordinated by the autonomic nervous system whereas the kidneys appear to be responsible for day-to-day, long-term blood pressure control.
Basic Regulation
Subtopics

Isolated Systolic Hypertension During Pregnancy

PPT

High blood pressure, including isolated systolic hypertension poses various risks during pregnancy including:

  • Placental abruption
  • Diabetes
  • Heart valve problems

I wrote a whole blog post about Isolated Systolic Hypertension which dives into the topics in more detail. You can read it by clicking here, Isolated Systolic Hypertension.

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How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed

Testing for pulmonary hypertension includes:

  • A complete history and physical exam.

  • An electrocardiogram may show a strain on the right side of your heart

  • Blood Tests to evaluate if you have any form of collagen vascular disease

  • A chest CT Angiogram to assess for lung disease and detect blood clots in the lung circulation

  • A pulmonary function test to measure lung capacity . Poor lung capacity reflects the degree of damage or deterioration of the lungs.

  • An exercise test called a six minute walk. You will be required to walk on a flat surface as fast as you can for six minutes to evaluate how much exercise you can do before you have symptoms.

  • An echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization

The echocardiogram can demonstrate the pump function of the heart and the quality of blood flow through the heart valves. Although this is a good test it is not the most accurate or reliable test for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension.

The only precise way to diagnose pulmonary hypertension is with a cardiac catheterization. A cardiac catheterization reveals important information including:

  • How well the heart is working

  • How high the pressures are within the pulmonary artery

  • How stiff or tight the pulmonary blood vessels are

  • How well medicines are working

Patients living with Pulmonary Hypertension have several treatment options to improve their quality of life.

What Are The Risk Factors For High Blood Pressure

Nearly one-third of all Americans have high blood pressure, but it is particularly prevalent in:

  • People who have diabetes, gout, or kidney disease

  • African Americans

  • People in their early to middle adult years men in this age group have higher blood pressure more often than women in this age group

  • People in their middle to later adult years women in this age group have higher blood pressure more often than men in this age group

  • Middle-aged and elderly people more than half of all Americans age 60 and older have high blood pressure

  • People with a family history of high blood pressure

  • People consuming a high salt diet

  • Overweight people

  • Women who are taking oral contraceptives

  • People with depression

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