What Factors Influence Blood Pressure
- Age: Blood pressure tend to increase with age.
- Gender: Women after puberty have low BP than men, whereas, after menopause, women tend high BP.
- Genetics/family history: A family history puts you at risk of high BP.
- Weight: Being overweight or obese increases your risk of high BP.
- Diurnal variation: BP is lower in the morning and gradually increases throughout the day.
- Stress: BP increases during stress, emotions, fear, and anger situations due to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system.
- Exercise: Physical activity increases BP, but regular exercises can keep BP in the lower range of normal.
- Pregnancy:Progesterone relaxes the walls of blood vessels, causing decreased peripheral vascular resistance. Some women may develop pregnancy-induced hypertension.
- Diseases: Diseases such as diabetes, kidney disease, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, Cushings syndrome, and pheochromocytoma can cause high BP.
- Medications: Certain medications can affect BP such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, antianxiety medications, and prednisone.
- Alcohol or tobacco consumption: Drinking too much alcohol can increase your BP.
Hypertension Screen Three And Diagnosis With Diabetes
If you already have diabetes, your doctor may suggest the following to keep an eye on your blood pressure levels:
- Measure your blood pressure at every routine medical visit.
- If the blood pressure readings are found to be high, multiple readings may be taken on different days to get an accurate idea and reading.
- If you have been diagnosed with both diabetes and hypertension, it is important that you take your blood pressure reading regularly at home.
- If the initial blood pressure reading comes high, your doctor may want to check the same in both arms.
- In some cases, if you already have high blood pressure, your doctor may want to repeat the reading again under medical supervision, within a month.
How Do Blood Pressure Medicines Work
Blood pressure medicines can work several different ways. Blood pressure medicines can keep blood pressure at a healthy level by1:
- Causing your body to get rid of water, which decreases the amount of water and salt in your body to a healthy level
- Relaxing your blood vessels
- Making your heart beat with less force
- Blocking nerve activity that can restrict your blood vessels
Talk with your health care team about the best type of treatment for you. You may need to take more than one type of medicine to control your blood pressure. You can also talk to your health care team about how long it should take your blood pressure medicine to work.
It is important to take your blood pressure medicine exactly as your doctor tells you to. Do not stop taking your current medicine without talking to your doctor or pharmacist first. Stopping your blood pressure medicine without first talking to your health care team could lead to serious health consequences.
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Does High Blood Pressure Increase Heart Rate
Heart rate and blood pressure do not necessarily increase at the same rate. A rising heart rate does not cause your blood pressure to increase at the same rate. Even though your heart is beating more times a minute, healthy blood vessels dilate to allow more blood to flow through more easily. When you exercise, your heart speeds up so more blood can reach your muscles. It may be possible for your heart rate to double safely, while your blood pressure may respond by only increasing a modest amount.
Inhibition Of The Renin
Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with ultrafiltration during HD may contribute to intradialytic hypertension and inhibition of RAAS can serve as a therapeutic option. In a small study of 6 patients with intradialytic hypertensive crisis, administration of captopril was beneficial in controlling BP. Newer longer-acting ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers may improve intradialytic hypertension particularly since certain RAAS inhibitors can inhibit ET1 release, however this has not been investigated to date.
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What Are Other Ways I Can Lower My Blood Pressure
In addition to taking medicine to control your blood pressure, you can take other steps to help keep your blood pressure levels healthy.
- Get regular physical activity. Staying physically active is one of the best things you can do for your health. Physical activity helps keep your heart and blood vessels strong. It also can help you keep a healthy weight.
- Do not smoke. Smoking damages your blood vessels and greatly increases your risk of not only high blood pressure but also heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
- Eat healthy foods. Choosing healthy meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables.
- Keep a healthy weight. Having overweight or obesity means your heart must work harder to pump blood and oxygen around the body. Staying at a healthy weight reduces the stress on your heart and reduces your risk for heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
Why Does Blood Pressure Increase With Age
Doctors dont completely understand why blood pressure tends to rise with age. Blood pressure is the force of blood as it flows through the arteries. As you age, your arteries may narrow and become stiff. Narrow arteries lead to an increase in blood pressure. High blood pressure can damage the walls of the arteries and the heart itself.
In some cases, high blood pressure could be a result of lifestyle, the environment, certain medications, or other conditions such as sleep apnea, kidney disease, or thyroid problems.
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How To Regulate Hypertension
You already have a set of guidelines that you may have been asked to follow by your healthcare team in order to take care of your diabetes. Here are some very similar things that you can do, that may help you in managing your hypertension better:
- You may speak to your dietician or doctor to find out a diet plan that can help in your overall health.
- Ask your doctor for a diet that can specifically help in managing your blood pressure.
- Eating fresh foods and vegetables, having foods that are rich in fibre, especially whole grains, can be a great addition to a diet that can help manage hypertension.
- Reduce the amount of unhealthy fats, especially trans-fat and animal fat.
- Cut down or reduce your alcohol intake or smoking.
- If you are a passive smoker, reduce your risk by staying away from smokers.
- Cut down the amount of salt you eat on a daily basis.
- Initially, this may seem like a very challenging experience, especially if you are used to a certain palate.
- Start by reducing a very tiny bit of salt in your regular meals.
- You can also reduce the amount of salty snacks, especially the packaged ones that you eat. Packaged snacks almost always have a very high amount of sodium, which can have alarming effects on your blood pressure levels.
Complications Of High Blood Pressure
Untreated or poorly managed high blood pressure can cause serious and even life threatening issues. It can damage your blood vessels as well as your organs. The longer your hypertension goes untreated, the more it can damage your body and affect your health.
Potential complications of high blood pressure include:
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What Is The Best Treatment For High Blood Pressure
Depending on your high blood pressure, lifestyle changes and/or medications may be helpful in maintaining a healthy and normal blood pressure. Some common lifestyle recommendations include:
How To Lower Your Blood Pressure
You might be worried by your high blood pressure, but the good news is that it can be lowered to optimal levels with some proper foresight.
Although medication may be prescribed by a doctor in order to lower blood pressure, the safest course of action is to make long lasting lifestyle changes.
Diet is extremely important in this context. First and foremost, patients suffering from hypertension should be mindful of their salt intake. In fact, you may want to cut it out entirely out of your diet. Just remember that most of the salt you eat is actually found in products that are already prepared, such as breakfast cereals, ready-made meals, and bread. Be sure to check the nutritional facts label on the products you select from the supermarket.
Eating more fruits and vegetables can also help to lower blood pressure. A healthy amount is five portions of fruit and vegetables per day, where a portion weighs roughly 80 grams. Watch out for added salts when buying frozen or tinned fruits and vegetables from your local supermarket.
A healthy diet will also help you to mitigate another important risk factor for hypertension: being overweight. Exercising and a low-calorie diet can help you reduce your weight to more healthy levels your blood pressure drops along with those extra pounds. Additionally, doing cardio also keeps the heart healthy.
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Tips For Taking Blood Pressure Medication
Untreated high blood pressure can increase your risk of serious health problems. If your doctor prescribes medication to lower your blood pressure, remember:
- If you take blood pressure medication and your blood pressure goes down, it means medication and lifestyle changes are working. If another doctor asks if you have high blood pressure, the answer is, “Yes, but it is being treated.”
- Healthy lifestyle changes may help lower the dosage you need.
- Get up slowly from a seated or lying position and stand for a bit before walking. This lets your blood pressure adjust before walking to prevent lightheadedness and falls.
- Tell your doctor about all the drugs you take. Don’t forget to mention over-the-counter drugs, including vitamins and supplements. They may affect your blood pressure. They also can change how well your blood pressure medication works.
- Blood pressure medication should be taken at the same time each day as part of your daily routine. For example, take it in the morning with breakfast or in the evening before brushing your teeth. If you miss a dose, do not double the dose the next day.
- Remember to refill your medication before you run out and bring it with you when traveling. Its important to keep taking your medication unless your doctor tells you to stop.
- Before having surgery, ask your doctor if you should take your blood pressure medication on the day of your operation.
What If Lifestyle Changes Dont Help Lower My Blood Pressure
If diet, exercise and other lifestyle changes dont work to lower your blood pressure, your healthcare provider will prescribe medications to help lower your blood pressure. Your provider will take into account other conditions you may have, such as heart or kidney disease and other drugs youre taking when prescribing medications to treat your high blood pressure. Be sure to follow your providers dosing directions exactly.
What Is Normal Blood Pressure By Age
Blood pressure ranges for adults are:
- High: Systolic of 130 or above and/or diastolic of 80 or above
- High Blood Pressure Stage 1: Systolic of 130-139 or diastolic of 80-89
- High Blood Pressure Stage 2: Systolic of 140 or higher or diastolic 90 or higher
The normal Blood Pressure Ranges for Adults Chart
|Blood Pressure Category|
|Higher than 120|
The normal blood pressure for adolescents 13 years or older is less than 120/80 mmHg.
In younger children, the normal range for blood pressure is determined by the child’s sex, age, and height. The normal range is expressed as a percentile, similar to charts used to track children’s growth.
Blood pressure is separated into three categories based upon the child’s blood pressure percentile:
The normal blood pressure range for Children Chart
|Blood Pressure Category|
What Do The Numbers Mean
When a healthcare professional takes your blood pressure, its expressed as a measurement with two numbers, one number on top and one on the bottom , like a fraction. For example, 120/80 mm Hg.
Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury. Thats what the mm/Hg stands for. Heres what the numbers mean:
- Your systolic pressure is the pressure of the blood in your arteries when your heart contracts or beats.
- Your diastolic pressure is the pressure of the blood in your arteries between beats, when your heart relaxes.
Both numbers are important in determining the state of your heart health.
Numbers greater than the ideal range may be a sign that your heart is working too hard to pump blood to the rest of your body.
For a normal reading, your blood pressure needs to show:
- a systolic pressure thats above 90 mm Hg and less than 120 mm Hg, and
- a diastolic pressure thats between 60 mm Hg and less than 80 mm Hg
The American Heart Association considers blood pressure to be within the normal range when both your systolic and diastolic numbers are in these ranges.
You may need to be even more mindful of your lifestyle if high blood pressure runs in your family.
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How Can I Control My Blood Pressure
You can often lower your blood pressure by changing your day-to-day habits and by taking medication if needed. Treatment, especially if you have other medical conditions such as diabetes, requires ongoing evaluation and discussions with your doctor.
Lifestyle changes you can make to help prevent and lower high blood pressure:
In addition to recommending lifestyle changes, your doctor will likely prescribe medication to lower your blood pressure to a safe level. Isolated systolic hypertension, the most common form of high blood pressure in older adults, is treated in the same way as regular high blood pressure but may require more than one type of blood pressure medication. You may try several kinds or combinations of medications before finding a plan that works best for you. Medication can control your blood pressure, but it can’t cure it. If your doctor starts you on medication for high blood pressure, you may need to take it long-term.
The Difference Between Blood Pressure And Pulse
Blood pressure refers to the force of blood against the artery walls, whereas a persons pulse indicates the number of times the heart beats per minute.
A resting heart rate is when a person is sitting, lying down, or not engaged in an activity.
An active heart rate is when a person is exercising or engaged in physical activity.
Everyone has a slightly different resting heart rate, but the is between 60 and 100 beats per minute. A physically active person may have a heart rate as low as 40 beats per minute.
Similarly to blood pressure, a persons heart rate or pulse indicates how healthy the heart is.
of blood pressure:
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What Does The Systolic Blood Pressure Number Mean
Hereâs how to understand your systolic blood pressure number:
- Normal: Below 120
- Stage 1 high blood pressure : 130-139
- Stage 2 hypertension: 140 or more
- Hypertensive crisis: 180 or more. Call 911.
Normal Blood Pressure For Children
Normal BP ranges vary in children by age. The University of Iowa Stead Family Childrens Hospital provides this chart:
|Normal Blood Pressure for Children|
|112128 mm Hg||6680 mm Hg|
What is considered healthy for your child also varies by height, age, and sex. You can use Baylor College of Medicine’s calculator to see if your childs blood pressure reading is in a healthy range.
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Get Regular Blood Pressure Checks
If your blood pressure is in the healthy range and you have no other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and no personal or family history of high blood pressure, it is still important to have a check at least every two years. Your doctor can also check your blood pressure during routine visits.
If your blood pressure is highnormal , or if you have other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as a personal or family history of high blood pressure, stroke or heart attack, it is best to have it checked more frequently such as every 6 to 12 months or as directed by your doctor. Ask your doctor for advice.
How Older Adults Can Maintain A Healthy Blood Pressure
Maintaining a healthy blood pressure doesnt have to be complicated. Simple lifestyle changes can help:
- Exercise. National guidelines recommend adults of all ages engage in at least 150 minutes of moderate physical activity each week. If mobility or health conditions are a problem, older adults should try to be as physically active as possible.
- Lose weight. If your loved one is overweight, every 2 pounds lost can help reduce blood pressure by 1 mm Hg.
- Eat a heart-healthy diet low in salt. The DASH diet is rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish and low-fat dairy foods. It was designed specifically to help lower blood pressure. Try to limit sodium to no more than 2,300 milligrams per day.
- Avoid drinking alcohol. Alcohol can raise your blood pressure. If your loved one chooses to drink alcoholic drinks, limit it to no more than one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men.
- Dont smoke. Tobacco damages your artery walls. If your loved one smokes, ask their doctor how to help them quit.
- Manage stress. Try simple relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing exercises or meditation.
In some cases, diet and lifestyle changes are not enough to lower blood pressure. Your loved one may be having a difficult time achieving significant changes in their lifestyle, or their hypertension may be too severe to treat with diet and exercise alone.
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