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What Are The Four Stages Of Hypertension

What Is High Blood Pressure And Vascular Disease

What Are The 4 Stages Of Hypertension?

High Blood Pressure or hypertension is a persistent abnormal elevation of the pressure within the arteries which deliver blood to the entire body. An adults blood pressure is calculated by using two numbers. The hearts rhythmic pumping action creates the upper systolic pressure and its resting pressure between heart beats is the lower diastolic pressure . There are four stages of high blood pressure or hypertension:

  • STAGE 1 Systolic is 130-139 or diastolic is 80-89
  • STAGE 2 Systolic is greater than 140 or diastolic is greater than 90

If your blood pressure is in the prehypertension range, it is likely that you will end up with high blood pressure unless you take action to prevent it. High blood pressure needs to be treated because it can lead to kidney failure, heart attacks, heart failure, stroke, and blindness.

Causes

In most cases, its impossible to pinpoint an exact cause of high blood pressure. There are, however, a number of factors that have been linked to high blood pressure including:

  • A family history of high blood pressure.
  • Age The incidence of high blood pressure rises in men after age 35 and in women after age 45.
  • Gender Men are more likely to have high blood pressure than women.
  • Smoking Those who smoke are at an increased risk of having high blood pressure.
  • Race Approximately 33% of African-Americans have high blood pressure, compared to 25% of Caucasians.
Warning Signs
Treatment & Prevention
Resources

Sodium And Water Excretion

Sodium and water retention are associated with an increase in blood pressure. It is postulated that sodium, via the sodiumcalcium exchange mechanism, causes an increase in intracellular calcium in vascular smooth muscle resulting in increased vascular tone.

The primary cause of sodium and water retention may be an abnormal relationship between pressure and sodium excretion resulting from reduced renal blood flow, reduced nephron mass, and increased angiotensin or mineralocorticoids.

Stage One Of Hypertension

This first stage of the four stages of hypertension is referred to as the ânormalâ stage. A personâs systolic will be at less than 130 mm Hg and their diastolic will be less than 80 mm Hg. At this point, a person will not require treatment, as their blood pressure is normal. It is important, however, to monitor the blood pressure to ensure that it is staying normal.

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Pulmonary Artery And Lung Remodeling

The H& E staining results and their quantifications demonstrated that the wall thickness and the occlusion of the small pulmonary artery and arterioles were significantly increased at 5 weeks and progressively increased thereafter. Pulmonary vascular remodeling is characterized by the thickening of all three layers of the blood vessel wall at 5, 8, and 17 weeks. The lumens of vessels with diameter > 50 m were found to be significantly decreased and those of vessels with diameter < 50 m were completely obliterated. Surprisingly, at 35 weeks, the vessel wall thickness was reduced and the lumens of the pulmonary artery were significantly greater.

Cut Added Sugar And Refined Carbs

Hypertension awareness in young adults

Theres a growing body of research showing a link between added sugar and high blood pressure 00649-8/fulltext rel=nofollow> 30, 31).

In the Framingham Womens Health Study, women who drank even one soda per day had higher levels than those who drank less than one soda per day .

Another study found that having one less sugar-sweetened beverage per day was linked to lower blood pressure .

And its not just sugar all refined carbs, such as the kind found in white flour convert rapidly to sugar in your bloodstream and may cause problems.

Some studies have shown that low carb diets may also help reduce blood pressure.

One study on people undergoing statin therapy found that those who went on a 6-week, carb-restricted diet saw a greater improvement in blood pressure and other heart disease markers than people who did not restrict carbs .

Bottom line: Refined carbs, especially sugar, may raise blood pressure. Some studies have shown that low carb diets may help reduce your levels.

Berries are full of more than just juicy flavor.

Theyre also packed with polyphenols, natural plant compounds that are good for your heart.

Polyphenols can reduce the risk of stroke, heart conditions, and diabetes, as well as improving blood pressure, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation .

One study assigned people with high blood pressure to a low-polyphenol diet or a high-polyphenol diet containing berries, chocolate, fruits, and vegetables .

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Drug Identified That Could Reverse Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Scientists identify a safe drug that for the first time could treat and possibly reverse the thickening of lung artery walls in pulmonary arterial hypertension clinical trial is expected in 2019

Scientists at Stanley Manne Childrens Research Institute at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Childrens Hospital of Chicago took a major step toward developing a new treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension , a severe lung disease with a five-year survival rate of 50 percent. They identified a drug with a positive safety profile that inhibits a gene called HIF-2, which they discovered earlier promotes the progressive thickening of the lung artery walls a key feature of PAH called vascular remodeling, which leads to right-sided heart failure, the main cause of death in PAH patients. Recently, they demonstrated in three clinically-relevant animal models that inhibiting HIF-2 with a compound results in reversal of established PAH, suppression of vascular remodeling and right heart failure, and increased survival. These findings were published in the American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine.

This research is supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health.

Dr. Zhao is the William G. Swartchild, Jr. Distinguished Research Professor and Director of the Program for Lung and Vascular Biology at the Manne Research Institute.

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Your Blood Pressure Numbers And What They Mean

Your blood pressure is recorded as two numbers:

  • Systolic blood pressure indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls when the heart beats.
  • Diastolic blood pressure indicates how much pressure your blood is exerting against your artery walls while the heart is resting between beats.

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How Hypertension Is Diagnosed

Hypertension is usually diagnosed during a routine body checkup. It is advisable to visit a general physician on the off chance that you develop high blood pressure. People who are between the age group of 18 to 39 and 40 years or older are at a higher risk of developing high blood pressure. An appropriate sized arm cuff is used to diagnose Hypertension. There are some machines available which can analyze your blood pressure levels for free.

How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed

Stages of hypertension | Circulatory System and Disease | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Signs of pulmonary hypertension can be similar to the signs of many other health problems. This makes it hard to diagnose. Your doctor will probably run tests to estimate the blood pressure in your pulmonary arteries. He or she will also want to find out how well your heart and lungs are working. These tests may include:

  • A chest X-ray
  • A breathing test called a lung function test
  • An echocardiogram

Your doctor may also need to do other tests to find out whether another medical condition is causing your pulmonary hypertension. These could include:

  • Blood tests
  • A chest CT scan
  • A chest MRI

If your doctor determines that you have pulmonary hypertension, he or she will want to see how severe it is. For this, they may order an exercise test. These tests measure your activity level and how well your lungs and heart work while you are exercising. These tests can also be done during treatment to see how well the treatment is working.

PAH and your diet

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a condition in which the arteries that carry oxygen-rich blood to your lungs are constricted. If you have PAH, you might experience:

  • dizziness
  • nausea
  • difficulty breathing

You can take control of your PAH by making healthy choices and by staying dedicated to your new routine. What you eat is especially important. Some foods raise blood pressure, while others can cause weight gain.

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What Is The Best Drink For High Blood Pressure

What Is High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure has two components:

  • Systolic pressure is the top number. It represents the pressure the heart generates when it beats to pump blood to the rest of the body.

  • Diastolic pressure is the bottom number. It refers to the pressure in the blood vessels between heartbeats.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury . So blood pressure would be expressed, for example, as 120/80 mm Hg.

High blood pressure is diagnosed when one or both of these numbers is too high. High blood pressure is also called hypertension.

For decades, high blood pressure was defined as 140/90 mm Hg. In November, 2017, new United States guidelines lowered the threshold for diagnosing the condition. According to new guidelines, anyone with a reading of 130/80 mm Hg or higher has blood pressure. Based on this new definition, nearly half of Americans now fall into this group.

Blood pressure is now categorized as follows:

Normal: Less than 120/80 mm Hg

Elevated: 120/80 to 129/79 mm Hg

Stage 1 hypertension: 130/80 to 139/89 mm Hg

Stage 2 hypertension: 140/90 mm Hg and above

Although high blood pressure can cause symptoms such as headache and pounding heartbeat, it often causes no symptoms at all.

So why worry about high blood pressure? Because even when high blood pressure is not causing any symptoms, it can silently damage many organs, including the:

  • Brain

If you are diagnosed with hypertension, other tests will check for organ damage. These tests can include:

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What Is Pulmonary Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension basically high blood pressure in the lungs, or rather the vascular system servicing the lungs is a serious medical condition that be overall degenerative to your health and lead eventually to death. As blood vessels running between the lungs and heart become blocked or damaged, lung function is impaired and oxygenation of the heart and blood is reduced. This results in increased damage to the heart and lungs, causing fatigue and general ill health.

Symptoms of Pulmonary Hypertension include fatigue and dizziness, chest pain or pressure, heart palpitations, edema, and an inability to catch your breath that worsens over time.

What Are The Causes Of Pulmonary Hypertension

Kidney failure in hypertension
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension often has no determined cause. People who develop PPH may be genetically predisposed to the condition, or sensitive to substances that cause the blood vessels to constrict, including stimulants. PPH may also be triggered by other illnesses, including autoimmune diseases such as lupus, as well as AIDS, scleroderma and sickle-cell anemia.
  • Secondary pulmonary hypertension is linked to other heart and lung related medical problems, including:
  • Pathology of the lungs, such as blood clots, pulmonary fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases such as emphysema
  • Heart disease, including congenital heart conditions and left-sided heart failure
  • Connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma
  • Sleep apnea
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    What Is The Most Common Cause Of Pulmonary Hypertension

    The most common cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension in the United States is left heart disease.

    Left heart disease is where the left ventricle of the heart must work harder to pump the same amount of blood. Since the left ventricle is responsible for pumping blood to the entire body, the implications of left heart disease are significant.

    These implications include causing pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Consequences And Complications Of Hypertension

    The cardiac consequences of hypertension are left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy is caused by pressure overload and is concentric. There is an increase in muscle mass and wall thickness but not ventricular volume. Left ventricular hypertrophy impairs diastolic function, slowing ventricular relaxation and delaying filling. Left ventricular hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, especially sudden death. The consequences of hypertension are a function of its severity. There is no threshold for complications to occur as elevation of blood pressure is associated with increased morbidity throughout the whole range of blood pressure .

    Table 1

    Coronary artery disease is associated with, and accelerated by, chronic arterial hypertension, leading to myocardial ischaemia and myocardial infarction. Indeed, myocardial ischaemia is much more frequent in untreated or poorly controlled hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients. Two main factors contribute to myocardial ischaemia: a pressure related increase in oxygen demand and a decrease in coronary oxygen supply resulting from associated atheromatous lesions. Hypertension is a significant risk factor for death from coronary artery disease.

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    What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension

    Many things can cause pulmonary hypertension. This can make finding the exact cause difficult. Sometimes the disease is inherited. This means it is passed down from a parent to a child in their genes. Other times the cause isnt known. This is called idiopathic pulmonary hypertension.

    When pulmonary hypertension develops because of another medical condition, it is called secondary pulmonary hypertension. Breathing problems such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis, as well as sleep apnea, are common causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Other causes include:

    • Congestive heart failure
    • Birth defects in the heart
    • Blood clots in the pulmonary arteries
    • HIV infection
    • Connective tissue diseases such as lupus or scleroderma
    • Pulmonary fibrosis
    • Certain medicines or street drugs

    Some people have a higher risk of developing pulmonary hypertension. These include people who:

    • Have a family history of the condition
    • Have certain conditions, such as heart disease, lung disease, liver disease, HIV infection, or blood clots in the pulmonary arteries
    • Use street drugs or certain diet medicines
    • Live at high altitudes

    How Blood Pressure Is Measured

    Hypertension | stages, causes, symptoms, types, effects and treatment

    Blood pressure is measured with an instrument called a sphygmomanometer, through which the user listens for the sound of the force of blood in the patients arteries when the heart beats . Measured in millimeters of mercury , systolic pressure is the top number in your blood pressure reading. The second, or bottom number, is the pressure in the arteries of the heart at rest the diastolic pressure. Generally, as an adult, you are considered to have high blood pressure if your systolic pressure reading is greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg or if your diastolic pressure is greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg. But for every 20 mm Hg your systolic pressure raises above 115, and for every 10 mm Hg your diastolic pressure rises over 75, your risk of cardiovascular disease doubles so lower pressures are generally better.

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    Blood Pressure Measurements And Classification

    Blood pressure was measured three times while the respondent seated using automated OMRON R6 Wrist Blood Pressure Monitor, HEM-6000-E, Health Care Europe, B.V., Hoofddorp, The Netherlands. Such digital monitors have been shown to have high degree of agreement with mercury sphygmomanometers for systolic blood pressure . Average blood pressure was calculated arithmetically for the 3 measurements of each systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Missing values were excluded from being included in the study. Blood pressure classification was done using JNC 7 algorithm . Prehypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure measurement of 120139mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of 8089mmHg. Stage 1 hypertension was defined as SBP of 140159mmHg or DBP of 9099mmHg and stage 2 as SBP of greater than or equal to 160mmHg or DBP of greater than or equal to 100mmHg. Accordingly normal pressure was defined as SBP of less than 120mmHg and DBP of less than 80mmHg.

    Can You Live A Long Life With Hypertension

    Hypertension is also called the ‘silent killer’. If you leave Hypertension untreated there is a higher chance of death within a year. High blood pressure has an average survival rate of 10 months. It can even lead to stroke, blindness, heart attack, and kidney disease. So, it is advised to keep your bp level in the normal range and always keep a check on your level of Blood pressure.

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    Stage Four Of Hypertension

    Stage four is known as âstage 2â hypertension. Systolic is at 160 mm Hg or higher and diastolic is at 100 mm Hg or higher. At this point, a personâs hypertension would be classified as severe. Due to this, they would most likely be recommended a two-drug therapy to try and bring their blood pressure down. A person at stage 2 hypertension is at high risk for coronary heart disease, which can lead to a heart attack or stroke. You will have to have your blood pressure checked regularly and follow a strict regimen that will likely include dietary changes, exercise, and lifestyle changes.

    Are You At Risk With Hypertension?

    Are you wondering if your blood pressure is high? Are you aware of your high blood pressure and looking to change it? BASS Urgent Care is here for you! With our services, we are not only able to check your blood pressure, but help you determine if you need to make lifestyle changes or consider medication to help lower it. If you are in the Walnut Creek area and looking for medical assistance, look to BASS Urgent Care for help.

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