What Are The Treatments For High Blood Pressure
You will work with your provider to come up with a treatment plan. It may include only the lifestyle changes. These changes, such as heart-healthy eating and exercise, can be very effective. But sometimes the changes do not control or lower your high blood pressure. Then you may need to take medicine. There are different types of blood pressure medicines. Some people need to take more than one type.
If your high blood pressure is caused by another medical condition or medicine, treating that condition or stopping the medicine may lower your blood pressure.
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
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What Medications Treat High Blood Pressure
- Of appropriate, chlorthalidone is the preferred diuretic.
- Beta-blockers reduce heart rate and decrease the force of heart contraction by blocking the action of adrenaline receptors. Beta blockers are widely prescribed and effective but can cause increased fatigue and decreased exercise tolerance because they prevent an increased heart rate as a normal response to physical activity.
- They are also prescribed for people who have associated heart disease, angina, or history of a heart attack.
- Examples of beta blockers include, carvedilol , metoprolol , atenolol
Calcium Channel Blockers
- Calcium channel blocking agents work by relaxing the muscle in artery walls and by therefore reducing the force of contraction of heart muscle.
- Example of calcium channel blockers include, nifedipine , diltiazem , verapamil , nicardipine , amlodipine , and felodipine
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
- ACE inhibitors stop the production in the body of a chemical called angiotensin II, which causes blood vessels to contract. Narrower blood vessels are associated with increased blood pressure. Relaxing artery walls leads to lower blood pressure.
Blockers of Central Sympathetic System
Take your high blood pressure medicine as prescribed and only discontinue them on the advice of your doctor or other healthcare professional.
Improving Health With Current Research
Learn about the following ways in which we continue to translate current research and science into improved health for people who have high blood pressure. Research on this topic is part of our broader commitment to advancing scientific discovery in heart and vascular disease and health disparities and inequities research.
Learn about some of the pioneering research contributions we have made over the years that have improved clinical care.
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Measuring Your Blood Pressure At Home
You can also diagnose yourself with hypertension by measuring your blood pressure at home. If readings are high over two visits at the doctors office, and if your blood pressure is higher than 135/85 mmHg when properly measured at home, then the diagnosis of hypertension can be made. This requires you to measure your blood pressure twice a day, in the morning and evening, for one week. Pay no attention to the measurements from the first day. Measuring blood pressure at home requires accurate equipment and proper measuring techniques. Measure the blood pressure of others in your house their blood pressure may also be high.
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How Can You Reduce Your Risk Of High Blood Pressure
Fortunately, there are certain things you can do to help reduce your risk of developing high blood pressure. These include the following:
- Eat right: A healthy diet is an important step in keeping your blood pressure normal. The DASH diet emphasizes adding fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to your diet while reducing the amount of sodium. Since it is rich in fruits and vegetables, which are naturally lower in sodium than many other foods, the DASH diet makes it easier to eat less salt and sodium.
- Keep a healthy weight: Going hand-in-hand with a proper diet is keeping a healthy weight. Since being overweight increases your blood pressure, losing excess weight with diet and exercise will help lower your blood pressure to healthier levels.
- Cut down on salt: The recommendation for salt in your diet is to have less than 2,400 milligrams of sodium a day . To prevent hypertension, you should keep your salt intake below this level. Don’t forget that most restaurant foods and many processed and frozen foods contain high levels of salt. Use herbs and spices that do not contain salt in recipes to flavor your food do not add salt at the table.
- Keep active: Even simple physical activities, such as walking, can lower your blood pressure .
- Drinkalcoholin moderation: Having more than one drink a day and two drinks a day can raise blood pressure.
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What Problems Can It Cause
All types of high blood pressure, including isolated systolic hypertension, can slowly damage the inside of your arteries and cause tiny tears in their walls. A chemical called LDL cholesterol can build up in those damaged blood vessels and form a layer called plaque. That makes your arteries narrower and raises your blood pressure even higher.
When that happens, the arteries that carry oxygen to your heart can get blocked, and that can lead to a heart attack or a stroke . It also can make blood vessels in your brain burst, and that can cause a stroke, too.
In other parts of your body, it can strain the blood vessels in your eyes and make you lose your eyesight or damage the arteries around your kidneys so they donÃ¢t filter your blood the way they should.
What Should I Do If I Have High Blood Pressure
If you have been diagnosed with high blood pressure, you and your healthcare provider will talk about your target blood pressure. Your provider may suggest that you:
- Check your own blood pressure regularly with a home blood pressure monitor. These electronic monitors are available at most pharmacies or online.
- Work on controlling anger and managing stress.
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Is Systolic Or Diastolic Blood Pressure More Powerful As A Predictor Of Cardiovascular Complications Of Hypertension
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels are independently predictive of the risk of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive patients. However, systolic blood pressure is more powerful in predicting cardiovascular complications particularly in patients over the age of 50 years. Pulse pressurethe difference between systolic and diastlic blood pressureis also an independent predictor of cardiovascular complications and is increasingly larger in older patients. A wide pulse pressure is usually indicative of a noncompliant stiff aorta with a reduced ability to distend and recoil back. Thus, during systolic ejection of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta and systemic circulation, the aorta does not distend and the force of ejection is transmitted more forcefully into the peripheral vessels, thus causing an exaggerated systolic blood pressure level recording. During diastole, the elastic recoil of the aorta is more limited, contributing to a lower diastolic blood pressure. Thus, a noncompliant aorta would increase systolic blood pressure and reduce diastolic blood pressure, resulting in a widened pulse pressure.
Dany E. Weisz BSc, MD, MSc, Patrick Joseph McNamara MD, MRCPCH, MSc, in, 2017
Foods Can Have High Salt Content And Not Even Taste Salty
Foods that have high sodium content may not always taste salty. Salt can be hidden in foods such as salad dressings, soups, pasta sauces, cheeses, breads, and condiments. We all know potato chips are salty, but you may not know a bran muffin could contain more salt than the chips! This is why it’s important to read labels and check for sodium levels, and choose foods lower in salt.
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What Complications Are Associated With Hypertension
While kids with hypertension are unlikely to have heart attacks and strokes, it still has significant risks. Hypertension causes changes in the structures of the blood vessels and heart. Since hypertension in children has historically been understudied, there isnt a lot of data about exactly what these changes mean. But we do know that in adults, hypertension increases the chance of complications in the heart, blood vessels, and kidneys. Theres also compelling evidence that some of these changes are seen in children with high blood pressure.
These changes affect:
Blood vesselshigh blood pressure can damage blood vessels throughout the body, which makes it harder for organs to work efficiently.
Kidneysif the blood vessels in the kidneys are damaged, they may stop removing waste and extra fluid from the body. This extra fluid can raise blood pressure even more.
Other organsif left untreated, hypertension makes it harder for blood to reach many different parts of the body, including the eyes and the brain, and can lead to blindness and strokes.
How To Manage High Diastolic Blood Pressure
1. Lifestyle Changes
If you have hypertension or prehypertension, it is advisable to implement the following lifestyle changes:
- Do not smoke
- Adjust to healthy diet fresh vegetables, fruits, low-fat dairy products and low salt intake
- Sustain healthy weight
- Exercise regularly at least 30 minutes of moderate activity every day
The doctor might prescribe the following medications:
These are water pills that flush out excess sodium and water from your body and lower your blood pressure. One option is thiazide since it has minimal side effects.
- Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
They make blood vessels widen. This is done by inhibiting the formation of angiotensin hormone.
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
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Blood Pressure Is Linked To Other Medical Issues
High blood pressure can be the first indication of a serious underlying condition. When a patient comes in with high blood pressure, doctors will check their urine and kidney function do an electrocardiogram to check the size of the heart and look for lung changes.
Stress on the blood vessels makes people with hypertension more prone to heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, heart attack, stroke, kidney disease and aneurysms. Correspondingly, chronic conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, sleep apnea and high cholesterol increase the risk for developing high blood pressure.
In some women, pregnancy can contribute to high blood pressure, leading to preeclampsia. Postpartum blood pressure typically goes back to normal levels within six weeks. However, some women who have high blood pressure during more than one pregnancy may be more likely to develop high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases as they age.
Some of these medical issues can also cause spikes in high blood pressure .
What Is Considered High Blood Pressure
The American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology have recommended guidelines to define normal and high blood pressure .
Guidelines to define normal and high blood pressure stages chart
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Based on these new 2017 guidelines defining high blood pressure, as many as half of all Americans will have this disease . Uncontrolled high blood pressure is responsible for many cases of death and disability resulting from a heart attack, stroke, and kidney failure.
According to research studies, the risk of dying of a heart attack is directly linked to high blood pressure, particularly systolic hypertension. The higher your blood pressure, the higher the risk. Maintaining lifelong control of hypertension decreases the future risk of complications such as heart attack and stroke.
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Good Sleep Can Prevent And Manage High Blood Pressure
Most people experience a dip in blood pressure during the deepest stage of sleep , which is the body’s normal and healthy reaction to sleep. Not having that nighttime dip is a risk factor for heart disease and may increase daytime blood pressure.
Typically people spend 90 minutes to two hours in slow wave sleep per night. A recent study published in Hypertension found that men who got less slow wave sleep each night were a higher risk for hypertension than men who got more deep sleep.
While sleep disorders, like sleep apnea, and age can both affect the amount of deep sleep you get, there are steps you can take to ensure a good night’s sleep. Getting seven to eight hours of sleep a night, maintaining a consistent sleep schedule and being more active during the day can help improve the quality of your sleep.
Treatment For High Diastolic Blood Pressure
Medications used to lower high blood pressure work on both numbers. So even if you have an elevated diastolic pressure and your systolic pressure is normal, blood pressure medications will work to reduce that number. Before prescribing a medication, however, your doctor may recommend that you try to make some lifestyle changes to naturally bring that number down. These changes may include:
Follow the DASH diet
Limit saturated and trans fats, sodium, and salt
Lose weight, especially around your waist
Exercise for at least 30 minutes a day
Work on ways to reduce stress in your life
Monitor your blood pressure at home to watch for changes
If these measures are not helping, talk to your doctor about starting medication. There are many different medications available for high blood pressure, so it may take a few trial runs to find the one that works best for you. While you are figuring out which medication works, continue to implement these lifestyle changes for the best results.
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What Natural Remedies Therapies And Supplements Lower Blood Pressure
Alternative therapies may be helpful to people trying to control their blood pressure.
- Acupuncture and biofeedback are well-accepted alternative techniques that may help some people with high blood pressure.
- Techniques that induce relaxation and reduce stress are recommended. These include meditation, yoga, and relaxation training.
- These techniques alone may not control high blood pressure for many people. They should not be used as a substitute for medical therapy without first consulting with your health care practitioner.
Dietary supplements and alternative medications and therapies are sometimes recommended for high blood pressure.
- Examples include vitamins, garlic, fish oil, L-arginine, soy, coenzyme Q10, herbs, phytosterols, and chelation therapy.
- While these substances may be beneficial, the exact nature of their benefits is not known.
- Scientific studies have produced no evidence that these therapies lower blood pressure or prevent the complications of high blood pressure.
- Most of these substances are harmless if taken in moderate doses. Most people can take them without problems.
- Talk to your health care practitioner if you are considering any of these treatments. Substituting these therapies for medical therapies that have been shown to lower blood pressure and the risk of complications may have a harmful effect on your health.
Can High Diastolic Pressure Cause Pain
That chronic pain can actually increase a persons blood pressure. Although the mechanism involved is extremely complex it can be distilled down to this: chronic pain relentlessly stimulates that nerves responsible for regulating blood pressure, causing it to rise.
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Getting To Know Systolic And Diastolic Blood Pressure
Systolic pressure, or the upper number in your blood pressure measurement, indicates the pressure in your arteries when your heart beats or during the contraction of heart muscles. The normal systolic pressure is 120 mmHg or millimeters of mercury. Anything above 120 up to 139 mmHg is a sign of prehypertension while 140 mmHg and above indicates high blood pressure.
On the other hand, diastolic pressure, or the lower number, measures the pressure in your arteries when your heart muscles are relaxed and blood refills your heart or pressure in your arteries in between two heartbeats. The normal reading for diastolic pressure is less than 80 mmHg. If yours went 90 and above, it could mean you have hypertension.
In other words, the optimal blood pressure is 120/80. Anything beyond or below these numbers could indicate heart problems and you need to consult a doctor as soon as possible to avoid further complications.
Excessive Salt Raises Blood Pressure
Too much sodium can cause water retention that puts increased pressure on your heart and blood vessels. People with high blood pressure and those at a high risk for developing hypertension, including adults over 50 and black men and women, should have no more than 1,500 milligrams of sodium daily of salt.
Even people with normal levels should eat salt in moderation. Stick to no more than 2,300 mg of sodium , per day.
Most dietary sodium comes from processed foods. Rules of thumb are to choose foods with 5% or less of the daily value of sodium per serving and opt for fresh poultry, fish and lean meats, rather than canned, smoked or processed. Similarly, fresh or frozen vegetables are better than canned.
A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that if people cut just 1/2 teaspoon of salt per day, it could help lower the number of new cases of heart disease per year by up to 120,000.
Further, potassium found in foods like sweet potatoes, spinach, bananas, oranges, low-fat milk and halibut can counterbalance the pressure-increasing effects of sodium by helping to rid the body of excess sodium.
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